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Table 2 Demographic and clinical features of the SCA3 patients with and without each type of abnormal eye movement

From: Abnormal eye movements in spinocerebellar ataxia type 3

  Impaired smooth pursuits (horizontal or vertical) Increased square-wave jerks Gaze-evoked nystagmus (horizontal or vertical)
  Yes
(n = 21)
No
(n = 53)
P value Yes
(n = 10)
No
(n = 64)
P value Yes
(n = 58)
No
(n = 16)
P value
Sex (male,%)c 10 (47.6%) 29 (54.7%) 0.693 2 (20.0%) 37 (57.8%) 0.727 31 (53.4%) 8 (50.0%) 0.807
Mean age (years)a 45.05 ± 12.47 45.04 ± 11.90 0.919 43.20 ± 9.81 45.33 ± 12.32 0.789 43.81 ± 11.66 49.50 ± 12.40 0.215
Age of onset (years)a 37.38 ± 11.78 39.35 ± 12.88 0.693 37.20 ± 9.40 39.04 ± 12.99 0.789 38.03 ± 11.62 41.56 ± 15.49 0.222
Disease duration (years)b 7.67 ± 5.30 5.69 ± 6.54 0.200 6.00 ± 5.54 6.29 ± 6.38 0.885 5.78 ± 4.10 7.94 ± 11.04 0.760
Educational yearb 10.00 ± 4.04 10.74 ± 4.72 0.688 9.20 ± 3.36 10.73 ± 4.66 0.789 11.03 ± 4.57 8.69 ± 3.93 0.089
BMIb 20.81 ± 2.63 24.83 ± 25.28 0.693 21.15 ± 3.38 24.08 ± 23.04 0.885 21.07 ± 2.99 33.16 ± 45.67 0.241
Hyperreflexiac 10 (47.6%) 23 (43.4%) 0.824 6 (60%) 27 (42.2%) 0.789 30 (51.7%) 3 (18.8%) 0.067
Vision lossc 9 (42.9%) 15 (28.3%) 0.429 6 (60.0%) 18 (28.1%) 0.727 22 (37.9%) 2 (12.5%) 0.133
ICARS-Id 14.91 ± 7.25 11.23 ± 6.24 0.223 11.20 ± 4.37 12.44 ± 7.01 0.789 12.93 ± 6.30 9.88 ± 7.74 0.055
ICARS-IId 19.38 ± 10.12 14.23 ± 8.12 0.165 13.00 ± 8.54 16.11 ± 9.03 0.789 16.38 ± 8.75 13.19 ± 9.59 0.067
ICARS-IIId 2.43 ± 1.78 1.76 ± 1.40 0.398 1.50 ± 1.35 2.02 ± 1.56 0.789 1.95 ± 1.48 1.94 ± 1.77 0.722
ICARS-IVd 3.05 ± 1.43 1.93 ± 1.27 0.060 2.90 ± 1.60 2.14 ± 1.36 0.727 2.55 ± 1.27 1.13 ± 1.31 0.020*
Total ICARS scored 39.76 ± 18.04 29.13 ± 14.68 0.113 28.60 ± 14.14 32.70 ± 16.65 0.789 33.81 ± 15.39 26.13 ± 18.58 0.040*
SARA scored 13.79 ± 6.17 9.91 ± 5.21 0.113 9.70 ± 3.74 11.21 ± 5.98 0.789 11.41 ± 5.35 9.56 ± 6.94 0.133
MoCA scoree 22.28 ± 5.33 24.06 ± 4.36 0.398 24.00 ± 2.00 23.52 ± 4.98 0.789 24.28 ± 4.20 21.06 ± 5.58 0.241
HDRS-24 scoreb 9.00 ± 8.16 8.72 ± 9.28 0.683 6.50 ± 3.75 9.16 ± 9.45 0.885 9.55 ± 9.60 6.06 ± 5.17 0.396
HARS scoreb 6.76 ± 4.79 6.85 ± 7.80 0.429 4.80 ± 4.42 7.14 ± 7.34 0.789 7.66 ± 7.60 3.81 ± 3.08 0.215
ESS scoreb 5.33 ± 5.03 5.43 ± 4.57 0.867 6.30 ± 5.60 5.27 ± 4.55 0.789 5.59 ± 4.67 4.75 ± 4.77 0.608
PSQI scoreb 8.33 ± 4.09 6.79 ± 4.56 0.280 6.00 ± 2.98 7.42 ± 4.64 0.789 7.36 ± 4.57 6.75 ± 4.14 0.722
CAG repeat lengthb 64.19 ± 13.22 66.81 ± 10.27 0.693 69.70 ± 3.23 65.50 ± 11.84 0.789 68.48 ± 7.33 57.31 ± 17.22 0.040*
  Slowing of saccades (horizontal or vertical) Saccadic hypo/hypermetria (horizontal or vertical) Supranuclear gaze palsy (horizontal or vertical)
  Yes
(n = 31)
No
(n = 43)
P value Yes
(n = 17)
No
(n = 57)
P value Yes
(n = 4)
No
(n = 70)
P value
Sex (male,%)c 19 (61.3%) 20 (46.5%) 0.523 13 (76.5%) 26 (45.6%) 0.100 3 (75.0%) 36 (51.4%) 0.840
Mean age (years)a 45.68 ± 10.54 44.58 ± 13.01 0.665 45.00 ± 12.23 45.05 ± 12.01 0.923 39.00 ± 14.72 45.39 ± 11.83 0.775
Age of onset (years)a 38.58 ± 11.34 38.94 ± 13.45 0.978 38.18 ± 12.31 38.97 ± 12.40 0.923 31.50 ± 13.63 39.21 ± 12.44 0.740
Disease duration (years)b 7.10 ± 4.17 5.64 ± 7.37 0.047* 6.82 ± 5.09 6.08 ± 6.58 0.620 7.50 ± 8.96 6.18 ± 6.13 0.893
Educational yearb 11.03 ± 4.14 10.16 ± 4.79 0.665 10.06 ± 5.27 10.67 ± 4.31 0.926 9.50 ± 4.12 10.59 ± 4.56 0.775
BMIb 20.85 ± 2.61 25.74 ± 28.03 0.665 20.32 ± 2.74 24.69 ± 24.37 0.442 21.65 ± 1.94 23.80 ± 22.07 0.791
Hyperreflexiac 16 (51.6%) 17 (39.5%) 0.604 9 (52.9%) 24 (42.1%) 0.662 3 (75.0%) 30 (42.9%) 0.775
Vision lossc 8 (25.8%) 16 (37.2%) 0.523 3 (17.6%) 21 (36.8%) 0.345 1 (25.0%) 23 (32.9%) 1.000
ICARS-Id 14.74 ± 6.50 10.49 ± 6.34 0.048* 14.71 ± 5.58 11.54 ± 6.88 0.260 10.50 ± 5.92 12.37 ± 6.77 0.775
ICARS-IId 18.97 ± 8.91 13.33 ± 8.34 0.048* 18.88 ± 7.88 14.74 ± 9.12 0.260 19.25 ± 9.46 15.49 ± 8.97 0.740
ICARS-IIId 2.19 ± 1.49 1.77 ± 1.56 0.665 2.94 ± 1.03 1.65 ± 1.54 0.020* 3.00 ± 1.15 1.89 ± 1.54 0.740
ICARS-IVd 2.61 ± 1.45 1.98 ± 1.32 0.247 3.24 ± 1.35 1.95 ± 1.29 0.020* 3.25 ± 1.89 2.19 ± 1.37 0.740
Total ICARS scored 38.52 ± 15.25 27.56 ± 15.64 0.047* 39.77 ± 13.00 29.88 ± 16.60 0.100 36.00 ± 17.57 31.93 ± 16.34 0.775
SARA scored 13.39 ± 5.27 9.29 ± 5.48 0.047* 14.32 ± 4.54 10.02 ± 5.71 0.033* 12.50 ± 4.65 10.92 ± 5.80 0.775
MoCA scoree 23.03 ± 4.56 23.98 ± 4.78 0.257 22.29 ± 4.93 23.97 ± 4.58 0.371 21.25 ± 2.99 23.71 ± 4.74 0.740
HDRS-24 scoreb 9.36 ± 9.86 8.40 ± 8.28 0.665 7.47 ± 3.92 9.13 ± 9.93 0.804 13.75 ± 7.14 8.51 ± 8.97 0.740
HARS scoreb 7.10 ± 7.52 6.63 ± 6.76 0.751 6.41 ± 4.06 6.95 ± 7.74 0.620 7.00 ± 4.97 6.81 ± 7.17 0.775
ESS scoreb 5.29 ± 4.97 5.49 ± 4.50 0.751 5.41 ± 4.05 5.40 ± 4.88 0.923 3.00 ± 2.94 5.54 ± 4.73 0.775
PSQI scoreb 6.84 ± 4.58 7.51 ± 4.40 0.665 6.94 ± 4.72 7.32 ± 4.42 0.827 7.50 ± 2.52 7.21 ± 4.56 0.840
CAG repeat lengthb 65.65 ± 11.37 66.37 ± 11.12 0.691 65.29 ± 12.99 66.30 ± 10.66 0.987 48.50 ± 19.09 67.07 ± 9.84 0.740
  1. SCA3 spinocerebellar ataxia 3; BMI body mass index; MoCA Montreal Cognitive Assessment; ICARS International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale; SARA Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia; MoCA, Montreal Cognitive Assessment; HDRS-24 Hamilton Depression Scale; HARS Hamilton Anxiety Scale; ESS Epworth Sleepiness Scale; PSQI Pittsburgh sleep quality index
  2. * Significant difference after false discovery rate (FDR) correction for multiple comparisons
  3. a Student’s t-test; b Mann-Whitney U test; c Chi-squared test or Fisher’s exact test; dAnalyses of covariance (ANCOVA) with adjustment for age and disease duration; eANCOVA with adjustment for age and educational years