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Table 3 Relationship between PDQ-39 items and presence/absence of “OFF” episodes (N = 722)

From: Real-world assessment of the impact of “OFF” episodes on health-related quality of life among patients with Parkinson’s disease in the United States

PDQ-39 items Odds ratio
(95% CI)a
P value
Mobility
 Had difficulty doing the leisure activities which you would like to do 2.2 (1.5, 3.0) <  0.001
 Had difficulty looking after your home 1.9 (1.4, 2.6) <  0.001
 Had difficulty carrying bags of shopping 1.7 (1.2, 2.3) 0.002
 Had problems walking half a mile 1.4 (1.0, 2.0) 0.028
 Had problems walking 100 yards 2.0 (1.5, 2.7) <  0.001
 Had problems getting around the house as easily as you would like 2.2 (1.6, 3.0) <  0.001
 Had difficulty getting around in public 1.8 (1.3, 2.6) <  0.001
 Needed someone else to accompany you when you went out 1.9 (1.3, 2.6) 0.001
 Felt frightened or worried about falling over in public 1.5 (1.0, 2.1) 0.040
 Been confined to the house more than you would like 2.5 (1.9, 3.3) <  0.001
Activities of daily living
 Had difficulty washing yourself 1.8 (1.3, 2.4) <  0.001
 Had difficulty dressing yourself 1.8 (1.3, 2.4) <  0.001
 Had problems doing up buttons or shoelaces 1.7 (1.3, 2.3) 0.001
 Had problems writing clearly 2.2 (1.6, 2.9) <  0.001
 Had problems cutting up your food 1.4 (1.0, 2.0) 0.027
 Had difficulty holding a drink without spilling it 1.3 (0.9, 1.8) 0.108
Emotional well-being
 Felt depressed 1.3 (0.9, 1.9) 0.176
 Felt isolated and lonely 1.7 (1.2, 2.3) 0.003
 Felt weepy or tearful 1.5 (1.0, 2.1) 0.055
 Felt angry or bitter 1.5 (1.1, 2.1) 0.014
 Felt anxious 1.5 (1.0, 2.2) 0.026
 Felt worried about your future 1.2 (0.8, 1.8) 0.391
Stigma
 Felt you had to conceal your Parkinson’s from people 1.3 (0.9, 1.8) 0.127
 Avoided situations which involve eating or drinking in public 1.5 (1.1, 2.1) 0.010
 Felt embarrassed in public due to having Parkinson’s disease 1.3 (0.9, 1.8) 0.100
 Felt worried by other people’s reaction to you 1.2 (0.9, 1.7) 0.246
Social support
 Had problems with your close personal relationships 1.5 (1.0, 2.1) 0.048
 Lacked support in the ways you need from your spouse or partner 1.2 (0.8, 2.0) 0.399
 Lacked support in the ways you need from your family or close friends 1.3 (0.8, 2.0) 0.295
Cognitions
 Unexpectedly fallen asleep during the day 1.8 (1.3, 2.5) <  0.001
 Had problems with your concentration 2.1 (1.5, 2.9) <  0.001
 Felt your memory was bad 1.3 (1.0, 1.9) 0.090
 Had distressing dreams or hallucinations 1.8 (1.3, 2.5) <  0.001
Communication
 Had difficulty with your speech 3.4 (2.3, 4.9) <  0.001
 Felt unable to communicate with people properly 3.2 (2.3, 4.5) <  0.001
 Felt ignored by people 2.0 (1.4, 2.9) <  0.001
Bodily discomfort
 Had painful muscle cramps or spasms 1.2 (0.8, 1.9) 0.328
 Had aches and pains in your joints or body 1.1 (0.7, 1.7) 0.801
 Felt unpleasantly hot or cold 1.3 (0.9, 1.9) 0.189
  1. aOdds ratio for difference between patients with/without “OFF” episodes from ordered logistic regression; an odds ratio > 1 indicates higher likelihood of problems in a PDQ-39 item, indicating poorer health-related quality of life, in patients with “OFF” episodes compared with patients without “OFF” episodes
  2. CI confidence interval; PDQ-39 39-item Parkinson’s Disease Questionnaire