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Table 1 Demographic and characteristics of young adults with MCA territory infarction

From: Prevalence and outcome of young stroke patients with middle cerebral artery stenosis

  ALL (n = 249) No-stenosis group (n = 139) Stenosis group (n = 110) P Uni-MCA stenosis subgroup (n = 55) Multiple stenosis subgroup (n = 55) P
Age (yeras) 48.0 + 6.0 47.8 + 5.7 48.3 + 6.4 0.151 47.5 + 7.7 49.1 + 4.7 0.723
Sex (male, %) 170 (68.3%) 96 (69.1%) 74 (67.3%) 0.763 38 (69.1%) 36 (65.5%) 0.684
Traditional risk factors
 Hypertension 146 (58.6%) 86 (61.9%) 60 (54.5%) 0.244 25 (45.5%) 35 (63.6%) 0.056
 Diabetes mellitus 73 (29.3%) 34 (24.5%) 39 (35.5%) 0.058 17 (30.9%) 22 (40.0%) 0.319
 CAD 22 (8.8%) 14 (10.1%) 8 (7.3%) 0.440 3 (5.5%) 5 (9.1%) 0.714
 AF 3 (1.2%) 1 (0.7%) 2 (1.8%) 0.838 1 (1.8%) 1 (1.8%) 1.000
 Hyperlipidemia 137 (55.0%) 83 (59.7%) 54 (49.1%) 0.094 27 (49.1%) 27 (49.1%) 1.000
 Hyperhomocysteinemia 90 (36.1%) 53 (38.1%) 37 (33.6%) 0.464 19 (34.5%) 18 (32.7%) 0.840
 Alcohol consumption 84 (33.7%) 47 (33.8%) 37 (33.6%) 0.927 14 (25.5%) 23 (41.8%) 0.069
 Smoking 102 (41%) 55 (39.6%) 47 (42.7%) 0.615 25 (45.5%) 22 (40.0%) 0.563
 TIA/stroke 54 (21.7%) 26 (18.7%) 28 (25.5%) 0.199 6 (10.9%) 22 (40.0%) 0.000
 Family history of stroke 48 (19.3%) 25 (18.0%) 23 (20.9%) 0.561 12 (21.8%) 11 (20.0%) 0.815
Score of traditional risk factors
  ≥ 2 208 (83.5%) 115 (82.7%) 93 (84.5%) 0.702 43 (78.2%) 50 (90.9%) 0.065
  ≥ 3 152 (61.0%) 87 (62.6%) 65 (59.1%) 0.574 28 (50.9%) 47 (85.5%) 0.000
Rare risk factors
 Other cardiac disease 1 (0.4%) 0 1 (0.4%) 1 (0.4%) 0
 PAD 2 (0.8%) 0 2 (0.8%) 1 (0.4%) 1 (0.4%)
 Sleep apnea 1 (0.4%) 1 (0.4%) 0 0 0
 Migraine 1 (0.4%) 0 1 (0.4%) 0 1 (0.4%)
 Autoimmune disease 9 (3.6%) 6 (4.3%) 3 (2.7%) 0 3 (5.5)
Wake-up stroke 16 (6.4%) 7 (5.0%) 9 (8.2%) 0.315 4 (7.3%) 5 (9.1%) 1.000
NIHSS at admission 4 (1, 8) 3 (1, 6) 6 (2, 11) 0.000 6 (2, 12) 5 (2, 11) 0.827
Infarct size
 small infarct 111 (44.6%) 89 (64.0%) 22 (20.0%) 0.000 8 (14.5%) 14 (25.5%) 0.221
 medium infarct 82 (32.9%) 44 (31.7%) 38 (34.5%)   18 (32.7%) 20 (36.4%)  
 large territorial infarct 56 (22.5%) 6 (4.3%) 50 (45.5%)   29 (52.7%) 21 (38.2%)  
Silent brain infarcts
 0 133 (53.4%) 71 (51.5%) 62 (56.4%) 0.385 43 (78.2%) 19 (34.5%) 0.000
 1 30 (12.1%) 15 (10.8%) 15 (13.6%)   5 (9.1%) 10 (18.2%)  
  ≥ 2 86 (34.5%) 53 (38.1%) 33 (30.0%)   7 (12.7%) 26 (47.3%)  
White matter lesions
 0–2 168 (67.5%) 92 (66.2%) 76 (69.1%) 0.626 42 (76.4%) 34 (60.7%) 0.182
 3–4 63 (25.3%) 35 (25.2%) 28 (25.5%)   11 (20.0%) 17 (30.4%)  
 5–6 18 (7.2%) 12 (8.6%) 6 (5.5%)   2 (3.6%) 5 (8.9%)  
Complications 24 (9.6%) 7 (5.0%) 17 (15.5%) 0.006 8 (14.5%) 9 (16.4%) 0.792
NIHSS at discharge 2 (0, 5) 2 (0, 4) 4 (1, 8) 0.000 4 (0, 8) 4 (1, 7) 0.904
mRS at discharge
 0–2 185 (74.3%) 117 (84.2%) 68 (61.8%) 0.000 34 (61.8%) 34 (61.8%) 1.000
 3–6 64 (25.7%) 22 (15.8%) 42 (38.2%)   21 (38.2%) 21 (38.2%)  
  1. CAD indicates coronary artery disease, AF indicates atrial fibrillation, TIA indicates transient ischemic attack, PAD indicates peripheral arterial diseases, NIHSS indicates National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, mRS indicates modified Rankin Scale