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Table 2 Etiologies of young stroke patients according to TOAST classification

From: Prevalence and outcome of young stroke patients with middle cerebral artery stenosis

TOAST subtypes ALL (n = 249) Stenosis group (n = 110) No-stenosis group (n = 139)
Large artery atherosclerosis 102 (41.0%) 80 (72.7%) 22 (15.8%)
Small vessel disease 84 (33.7%) 7 (6.4%) 77 (55.4%)
Cryptogenic etiology 34 (13.7%) 9 (8.2%) 25 (18.0%)
Other determined etiology 23 (9.2%) 13 (11.8%) 10 (7.2%)
 Moyamoya disease 11 (47.8%) 9 (69.2%) 2 (20.0%)
 Dissection 4 (17.4%) 2 (15.4%) 2 (20.0%)
 Radiation vasculopathy 2 (8.7%) 1 (7.7%) 1 (10.0%)
 Cerebral amyloid angiopathy 2 (8.7%) 0 2 (20.0%)
 Other vasculitis 2 (8.7%) 0 2 (20.0%)
 Infectious vasculitis 1 (4.3%) 1 (7.7%) 0
 Metabolic Encephalopathy 1 (4.3%) 0 1 (10.0%)
Cardioemblolism 6 (2.4%) 1 (0.9%) 5 (3.6%)
 Patent foramen ovale 3 (50%) 0 3 (60.0%)
 Atrial fibrillation 1 (16.7%) 0 1 (20.0%)
 Myocardial infarction 1 (16.7%) 0 1 (20.0%)
 Dilated cardiomyopathy 1 (16.7%) 1 (100%) 0
  1. TOAST indicates Trial of Org 10,172 in Acute Stroke Treatment