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Table 4 Relationship between frailty group and health-related quality of life score

From: Association between in-hospital frailty and health-related quality of life after stroke: the Nor-COAST study

  ROBUST PRE-FRAIL FRAIL
    Difference from Robust   Difference from Robust
Unadjusted N Mean (95% CI) N Mean (95% CI) Estimate (95% CI) p value N Mean (95% CI) Estimate (95% CI) p value
3 months
 EQ-5D-5L index 180 0.865 (0.841 to 0.889) 337 0.767 (0.749 to 0.784) − 0.098(− 0.128 to − 0.069) < 0.001 61 0.659 (0.618 to 0.701) −0.206 (− 0.253 to − 0.158) < 0.001
 EQ-5D VAS 183 73.6 (71.0 to 76.2) 325 62.4 (60.4 to 64.4) −11.3 (− 14.5 to −8.0) < 0.001 60 50.8 (46.2 to 55.3) − 22.9 (− 28.1 to −17.7) < 0.001
18 months
 EQ-5D-5L index 168 0.872 (0.847 to 0.896) 284 0.755 (0.737 to 0.773) −0.117 (− 0.147 to − 0.086) < 0.001 41 0.596 (0.549 to 0.643) −0.276 (− 0.329 to − 0.223) < 0.001
 EQ-5D VAS 168 73.9 (71.2 to 76.6) 272 62.4 (60.3 to 64.4) −11.5 (− 14.9 to −8.1) < 0.001 38 48.5 (43.0 to 53.9) −25.4 (− 31.5 to −19.3) < 0.001
Change between 3 and 18 months
 EQ-5D-5L index 194 0.007 (−0.014 to 0.028) 366 −0.012 (− 0.005 to 0.028) −0.019 (− 0.046 to 0.008) 0.175 65 − 0.063 (− 0.105 to − 0.020) −0.070 (− 0.117 to − 0.022) 0.004
 EQ-5D VAS 194 0.2 (− 2.4 to 2.9) 355 0.0 (− 2.0 to 2.1) −0.3 (− 3.6 to 3.9) 0.880 64 −2.3 (2.7) −2.5 (− 8.6 to 3.5) 0.412
3 months
 EQ-5D-5L index 176 0.840 (0.816 to 0.864) 330 0.774 (0.757 to 0.790) −0.067 (− 0.097 to − 0.037) < 0.001 60 0.691 (0.650 to 0.732) − 0.149 (− 0.198 to − 0.100) < 0.001
 EQ-5D VAS 179 72.6 (69.8 to 75.3) 321 62.7 (60.8 to 64.7) −9.8 (− 13.3 to − 6.3) < 0.001 59 52.3 (47.6 to 57.1) −20.2 (− 25.9 to − 14.5) < 0.001
18 months
 EQ-5D-5L index 164 0.847 (0.822 to 0.871) 330 0.762 (0.745 to 0.780) − 0.084 (− 0.115 to 0.054) < 0.001 40 0.641 (0.594 to 0.687) − 0.206 (− 0.260 to 0.152) < 0.001
 EQ-5D VAS 164 72.8 (70.0 to 75.7) 320 62.5 (60.4 to 64.7) − 10.3 (− 13.9 to − 6.7) < 0.001 37 50.0 (44.3 to 55.7) −22.8 (− 29.3 to − 16.3) < 0.001
Change between 3 and 18 months
 EQ-5D-5L index 194 0.006 (− 0.015 to 0.028) 357 − 0.011 (− 0.028 to 0.005) − 0.018 (− 0.045 to 0.009) 0.203 64 −0.050 (−0.092 to −0.007) −0.056 (−0.104 to −0.009) 0.021
 EQ-5D VAS 194 0.2 (− 2.4 to 2.9) 349 −0.2 (− 2.3 to 1.9) −0.4 (− 3.8 to 3.0) 0.803 63 −2.3 (− 7.8 to 3.2) − 2.5 (− 8.7 to 3.6) 0.416
  1. Dependent variable: EQ-5D-5L index and EQ-5D VAS, respectively; categorical covariate: frailty state; random effect: participants
  2. Relationship between frailty group and health-related quality of life score at 3 and 18 months, respectively, and change in score between 3 and 18 months post stroke. Linear mixed effect regression with EQ-5D score as dependent variable, frailty category and time between 3 and 18 months and their interaction as categorical covariates, and participant as random effect