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Table 5 Relationship between frailty group and EQ-5D-5L dimensions

From: Association between in-hospital frailty and health-related quality of life after stroke: the Nor-COAST study

  ROBUST PREFRAIL FRAIL
     Difference from Robust    Difference from Robust
N Mean (95% CI) N Mean (95% CI) Estimate (95% CI) p value N Mean (95% CI) Estimate (95% CI) p value
3 months
 Mobility 189 1.34 (1.22 to 1.47) 334 1.67 (1.58 to 1.76) 0.34 (0.19 to 0.50) < 0.001 62 2.33 (2.11 to 2.55) 0.99 (0.74 to 1.25) < 0.001
 Self-care 189 1.12 (1.02 to 1.21) 333 1.25 (1.18 to 1.31) 0.14 (0.03 to 0.25) 0.014 62 1.66 (1.51 to 1.82) 0.55 (0.37 to 0.74) < 0.001
 Usual Activities 189 1.46 (1.33 to 1.59) 334 1.80 (1.70 to 1.88) 0.36 (0.19 to 0.52) < 0.001 62 2.53 (2.31 to 2.76) 1.09 (0.82 to 1.35) < 0.001
 Pain 187 1.61 (1.47 to 1.75) 333 1.91 (1.81 to 2.01) 0.29 (0.12 to 0.46) 0.001 62 2.01 (1.77 to 2.25) 0.39 (0.11 to 0.68) 0.007
 Anxiety 187 1.49 (1.37 to 1.60) 334 1.60 (1.52 to 1.69) 0.12 (−0.03 to 0.26) 0.118 61 1.74 (1.54 to 1.94) 0.25 (0.01 to 0.48) 0.038
18 months
 Mobility 175 1.36 (1.23 to 1.49) 282 1.78 (1.69 to 1.87) 0.43 (0.27 to 0.59) < 0.001 41 2.81 (2.56 to 3.06) 1.45 (1.17 to 1.73) < 0.001
 Self-care 175 1.13 (1.04 to 1.23) 283 1.32 (1.25 to 1.39) 0.20 (0.08 to 0.31) 0.001 41 1.94 (1.76 to 2.12) 0.81 (0.60 to 1.02) < 0.001
 Usual Activities 175 1.42 (1.28 to 1.55) 283 1.73 (1.63 to 1.83) 0.34 (0.17 to 0.51) < 0.001 41 2.64 (2.38 to 2.91) 1.24 (0.93 to 1.54) < 0.001
 Pain 173 1.64 (1.50 to 1.79) 281 2.01 (1.91 to 2.12) 0.39 (0.21 to 0.57) < 0.001 41 2.27 (1.99 to 2.55) 0.63 (0.31 to 0.95) < 0.001
 Anxiety 175 1.45 (1.33 to 1.56) 282 1.56 (1.48 to 1.65) 0.14 (−0.01 to 0.29) 0.058 41 1.74 (1.51 to 1.97) 0.31 (0.04 to 0.57) 0.022
Change
 Mobility 194 0.02 (−0.09 to 0.14) 366 0.11 (0.02 to 0.20) 0.08 (−0.06 to 0.23) 0.251 65 0.48 (0.25 to 0.71) 0.46 (0.20 to 0.71) < 0.001
 Self-care 194 0.02 (−0.07 to 0.10) 366 0.07 (0.01 to 0.14) 0.05 (−0.05 to 0.16) 0.351 65 0.28 (0.11 to 0.44) 0.26 (0.07 to 0.45) 0.007
 Usual Activities 194 −0.04 (−0.18 to 0.10) 366 −0.06 (−0.17 to 0.05) −0.02 (−0.19 to 0.16) 0.851 65 0.11 (−0.17 to 0.39) 0.15 (−0.16 to 0.46) 0.335
 Pain 194 0.02 (−0.13 to 0.16) 366 0.11 (0.00 to 0.23) 0.10 (−0.09 to 0.28) 0.299 65 0.26 (−0.03 to 0.54) 0.24 (−0.08 to 0.56) 0.142
 Anxiety 194 −0.06 (−0.17 to 0.05) 366 −0.03 (−0.12 to 0.06) 0.03 (−0.12 to 0.17) 0.698 65 0.00 (−0.23 to 0.23) 0.06 (−0.19 to 0.31) 0.642
  1. Dependent variable: Mobility, Self-care, Daily Activities, Pain and Anxiety, respectively. Categorical covariate: frailty state. Random effect: participants
  2. Adjusted for age, sex, and NIHSS-score
  3. Range in each dimension: 1–5 points. Positive value in ‘change’ represents a worsening
  4. Relationship between frailty group and EQ-5D-5L dimensions at 3 and 18 months, respectively, and change in score between 3 and 18 months post stroke. Linear mixed effect regression with EQ-5D-5L dimension as dependent variable, frailty category and time between 3 and 18 months and their interaction as categorical covariates, and participant as random effect