Skip to main content

Table 3 Meta-analysis of the clinical characteristics of the study subjects

From: Neurological manifestations and complications of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a systematic review and meta-analysis

  Pooled effect size
(95% CI)
Heterogeneity Tau squared # of studies
   Q value P value I Squared   
Mean age (Years) 50.3 (47.7–52.9) 2872.2 < .001 98.50 72.58 44
Male 53.0 (50.2–55.7) % 180.71 < .001 77.31 8.97 42
Clinical features
Headache 12.1 (9.1–15.8) % 989.99 < .001 96.26 0.824 38
Myalgia 22.2 (17.2–28.1) % 621.55 < .001 94.85 0.740 33
Taste impairment 19.6 (3.8–60.1) % 431.04 < .001 99.30 3.405 4
Smell impairment 18.3 (1.54–76.2) % 853.88 < .001 99.64 7.254 4
Dizziness 11.3 (8.5–15.0) % 27.85 .001 67.68 0.156 10
Features of encephalopathy or cognitive dysfunction 9.4 (2.8–26.6) % 133.92 < .001 95.51 2.70 7
Ataxia or abnormal gait 2.1 (0.2–23.7) % 6.59 .010 84.83 3.18 2
Fever 80.6 (74.9–85.3) % 1604.55 < .001 97.44 1.05 42
Cough 64.1 (59.9–68.0) % 575.30 < .001 93.04 0.26 41
Neurological complications a 3.0 (0.9–9.6) % 50.01 < .001 92.00 1.66 5
Acute CVD 2.5 (1.0–6.1) % 15.3 0.004 74.41 0.72 5
Laboratory findings
Serum CK (U/L) 85.5 (73.8–97.3) 369.93 < .001 96.21 434.78 15
Serum LDH (U/L) 263.4 (234.6–292.3) 648.50 < .001 97.84 3026.56 15
Lymphocyte (a10^9/L) 1.08 (1.02–1.14) 549.37 < .001 95.08 0.024 28
Neutrophils (a10^9/L) 3.44 (3.21–3.68) 214.45 < .001 90.67 0.244 21
Monocytes (a10^9/L) 0.39 (0.37–0.42) 42.66 < .001 78.90 0.001 10
Severe COVID-19 31.1 (21.9–42.2) % 739.23 < .001 97.02 1.16 23
ICU admission 20.6 (14.1–29.0) % 231.12 < .001 91.34 0.81 21
Comorbidities
Any previous comorbidity 37.4 (33.1–41.9) % 274.90 < .001 89.08 0.231 31
Diabetes Mellitus 10.3 (8.3–12.8) % 265.15 < .001 88.68 0.360 31
Hypertension 20.4 (17.0–24.2) % 196.73 < .001 87.292 0.253 26
Heart diseases 9.7 (7.2–12.9) % 426.59 < .001 93.201 0.706 30
Neurological diseases 5.7 (3.3–9.7) % 175.60 < .001 90.319 1.213 18
Malignancy 2.7 (2.0–3.6) % 61.429 < .001 59.303 0.319 26
Pulmonary diseases 3.4 (2.2–5.0) % 260.24 < .001 89.240 0.973 29
Chronic kidney disease 2.3 (1.3–3.9) % 75.189 < .001 81.380 0.858 15
Chronic liver disease 3.5 (2.6–4.7) % 32.726 .005 54.165 0.187 16
Smoking 9.2 (6.4–13.0) % 146.643 < .001 89.771 0.501 16
  1. aNeurological complications include: Cerebrovascular diseases (ischemic stroke, cerebral hemorrhage, and venous sinus thrombosis), rhabdomyolysis, and seizures
  2. P < .05 indicates the presence of heterogeneity