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Table 4 Subgroup analysis between severe and non-severe groups

From: Neurological manifestations and complications of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Subgroup Pooled effect size
(95% CI)
Heterogeneity Tau squared Mixed effects analysis
    Q value Df (Q) P value † I Squared   P value
Age (Years) Total 56.9 (55.1–58.8) 1443.18 34 < .001 97.64 107.603 < .001
Non severe 44.4 (40.1–48.7) 585.98 16 < .001 97.26 77.40  
Severe 60.0 (57.9–62.1) 78.77 17 < .001 78.418 13.35  
Male Total 53.1 (49.5–56.6) % 108.58 31 < .001 71.45 0.104 .001
Non severe 48.6 (44.2–53.1) % 54.23 15 < .001 72.34 0.082  
Severe 60.3 (54.7–65.7) % 36.90 15 .001 59.36 0.104  
Clinical features
Headache Total 14.8 (12.4–17.5) % 187.25 30 < .001 83.97 0.474 .308
Non severe 12.2 (7.9–18.2) % 170.26 15 < .001 91.19 0.730  
Severe 15.4 (12.7–18.5) % 16.27 14 .296 14.003 0.025  
Myalgia Total 24.4 (18.2–32.0) % 167.89 18 < .001 89.279 0.468 .045
Non severe 19.4 (13.1–27.9) % 102.34 9 < .001 91.206 0.463  
Severe 34.9 (22.3–49.9) % 58.061 8 < .001 86.221 0.651  
Dizziness Total 11.9 (8.7–16.0) % 16.073 7 0.024 56.449 0.106 .506
Non severe 10.9 (7.4–16.1) % 10.27 4 0.036 61.076 0.145  
Severe 13.5 (8.2–21.5) % 5.619 2 0.06 64.409 0.152  
Features of Encephalopathy / cognitive dysfunction Total 3.2 (1.2–8.4) % 116.97 6 < .001 94.87 4.753 .054
Non severe 1.9 (0.6–5.8) % 2.266 2 .322 11.743 0.167  
Severe 16.9 (2.4–62.3) % 83.34 3 < .001 96.4 4.342  
Fever Total 79.8 (71.6–86.2) % 560.33 31 < .001 94.46 1.159 .213
Non severe 76.9 (66.3–85.0) % 313.83 15 < .001 95.22 0.912  
Severe 86.5 (72.6–93.9) % 238.40 15 < .001 93.708 2.63  
Cough Total 59.2 (52.8–65.3) % 285.48 30 < .001 89.49 0.402 .094
Non severe 55.8 (48.2–63.2) % 141.37 15 < .001 89.39 0.302  
Severe 67.4 (55.9–77.2) % 135.46 14 < .001 89.66 0.734  
Neurological Complications Total 3.8 (1.3–10.0) % 82.532 7 < .001 91.518 2.274 .212
Non severe 1.3 (0.2–8.8) % 17.178 2 < .001 88.35 2.663  
Severe 5.6 (1.7–17.1) % 37.55 4 < .001 89.34 1.607  
Acute CVDa Total 2.6 (1.1–5.8) % 33.02 7 < .001 78.91 1.42 .045
Non severe 0.6 (0.1–3.1) % 4.578 2 0.101 56.319 1.299  
Severe 4.1 (1.6–10.0) % 15.38 4 0.004 74.00 0.797  
Laboratory findings
Serum CK Total 91.5 (79.3–103.7) 90.95 15 < .001 83.505 377.38 .01
Non severe 83.0 (69.1–96.8) 53.346 7 < .001 86.87 276.03  
Severe 121.2 (95.4–147.1) 18.80 7 < .001 62.76 633.03  
Serum LDH Total 270.6 (243.1–298.1) 494.931 15 < .001 96.969 3099.14 .012
Non severe 247.6 (214.8–280.4) 272.42 7 < .001 97.43 1997.9  
Severe 324.9 (274.4–375.4) 66.42 7 < .001 89.462 4195.36  
Preexisting neurological diseases Total 4.5 (2.8–7.0) % 101.58 20 < .001 80.31 1.055 .072
Non severe 2.6 (1.2–5.5) % 36.692 9 < .001 78.19 0.970  
Severe 6.2 (3.5–10.9) % 42.959 11 < .001 74.39 0.772  
  1. aCVD (Cerebrovascular diseases): Ischemic stroke, cerebral hemorrhage, and venous sinus thrombosis
  2. P < .05 indicates the presence of heterogeneity