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Table 1 Population characteristics of the validation sample

From: German translation, cultural adaptation and validation of the unidimensional self-efficacy scale for multiple sclerosis

Parameters N = 309
Gendera 72 (23.3) males
237 (76.7) females
Ageb 50.2 ± 11.8 years
MS phenotypea 194 (62.8) relapsing-remitting
36 (11.7) primary progressive
79 (25.6) secondary progressive
Disease durationb 18.21 ± 10.80 years
EDSSc 3.0 (0–9)
EDSS groupsa 205 (66.3) with an EDSS of 0–4.0
86 (27.8) with an EDSS of 4.5–6.5
18 (5.8) with an EDSS of 7.0–9.0
Disease modifying treatment (DMT)a 163 (53) patients received no DMT
61 (19.7) received lowly effective DMTd
85 (27.5) received highly effective DMTe
  1. Abbreviations: EDSS Expanded Disability Status Scale
  2. aData are shown as count (percentage)
  3. bData are presented as mean ± standard deviation
  4. cData are shown as median (range)
  5. dlow effective DMTs: interferon-b 1a and 1b, pegylated interferon-b 1a, glatiramer acetate, dimethyl fumarate, teriflunomide, azathioprin, intravenous immunoglobulins
  6. ehigh effective DMTs: alemtuzumab, cladribine, fingolimod, natalizumab, ocrelizumab, cyclophosphamide, mitoxantrone, rituximab