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Table 1 Demographic information at baseline of analyzed participants (n = 42)

From: Learning to play golf for elderly people with subjective memory complaints: feasibility of a single‐blinded randomized pilot trial

  Golf group
(n = 23)
Control group
(n = 19)
p-value Cohen’s d
Age (years) 67.87 ± 4.7 67.89 ± 3.9 0.95 0.05
Gender     
male 10 (43.5 %) 9 (47.4 %) 0.51  
female 13 (56.5 %) 10 (52.6 %)   
Handedness     
right 22 (95.7 %) 19 (100 %) 0.53  
left 1 (4.3 %) 0   
Formal education (years) 14.4 ± 4.5 12.26 ± 3.6 0.13 0.59
BDI (score) 4.7 ± 4.4 4.4 ± 3 0.93 0.10
ADAS-Cog (score) 8 ± 3.55 7.68 ± 3.41 0.71 0.09
Cardiovascular risk factors  
 BMI 26.3 ± 3.4 26.2 ± 3.9 0.44 0.02
 Current smoker 3 (13 %) 2 (10.5 %) 0.55  
 Heavy smoker 0 (0 %) 1 (5.3 %) 0.48  
 Diabetes mellitus type 1 2 (8.7 %) 1 (5.3 %) 0.54  
 Diabetes mellitus type 2 1 (4.3 %) 1 (5.3 %) 0.73  
 Hypertension 12 (52.2 %) 7 (36.8 %) 0.26  
 Heart disease 4 (17.4 %) 3 (15.8 %) 0.55  
Physical outcomes  
 6-min-Walk-Test (m) 651.37 ± 121.32 627.73 ± 99.67 0.48 0.24
 PASE (score) 181.11 ± 59.52 153.37 ± 57.05 0.15 0.48
  1. Quantitative variables were expressed as means ± standard deviations and categorical variables were expressed as numbers and percentage values
  2. Group differences were tested with Mann-Whitney-U for ordinal scaled variables, with independent t-test for metric variables, and with χ2 tests for categorical variables. BDI Becks-Depression-Inventory; ADAS-Cog Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale - Cognitive Subscale, BMI Body Mass Index; PASE Physical Activity Scale for Elderly, p ≤ 0.05 = statistical significance