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Table 2 (A) The results of the univariate survival analysis screening for associations between the median survival time and the covariates available at the test date. (B) The statistically significant covariates from (A) analyzed by stepwise, multivariate regression (Cox proportional hazards model)

From: Prediction of survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a nationwide, Danish cohort study

(A) (B)
Variable HR p Variable HR p HR coefficient p
Age at onset (yrs) Age at onset (yrs)
< 65.2 1 < 65.2 1
≥65.2 2.18 (1.34–3.54) 0.0017 ≥65.2 2.56 (1.56–4.22) 2.2e-4 1.07 (1.04–1.10) 3.0e-6
Onset to diagnosis (mo)   Onset to diagnosis (mo)    
< 12.7 1 < 12.7 1
≥12.7 0.45 (0.28–0.73) 0.013 ≥12.7 0.52 (0.31–0.86) 0.01 0.52 (0.37–0.73) 1.4e-4
ΔFS’    ΔFS’     
< 0.68 1 < 0.68 1
≥0.68 3.66 (2.17–6.18) 1.1e-6 ≥0.68 3.3 (1.91–5.69) 1.8e-5 2.19 (1.67–2.88) 1.6e-8
ALSFRS-R at test date       
< 36.5 1      
≥36.5 0.97 (0.61–1.57) 0.91      
Sex (n)        
Female (39) 1      
Male (51) 0.92 (0.57–1.48) 0.74      
Onset site (n)       
Mixed (6) 1      
Truncal (1) 0.95 (0.11–8.2) 0.96      
Bulbar (26) 0.85 (0.32–2.28) 0.75      
Spinal (57 0.78 (0.31–1.98) 0.60      
  1. ALSFRS-R ALS functional rating scale, ΔFS’ ALSFRS-R progression rate, HR Hazard ratio, mo Months, p P-value, yrs. years