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Table 3 Comparison of demographic characteristics among the remission group, unchanged group and aggravation group according to headache duration

From: Overall trend towards headache remission during the COVID-19 pandemic among Chinese patients with pre-existing headache highlights the role of family support

characteristics The remission group1 (n = 686) The unchanged group2 (n = 1936) The aggravation group3 (n = 184) P value P value Post hoc
1 vs 2 1 vs 3 2 vs 3
Male, n (%) 251 (36.59) 715 (36.93) 77 (44.85) 0.393    
Age, n (%)     0.253    
  < 30 176 (25.66) 441 (22.78) 53 (28.80)     
 30–50 463 (67.49) 1371 (70.82) 120 (65.22)     
  > 50 47 (6.85) 124 (6.40) 11 (5.98)     
Education level, n (%)     0.035 0.152 0.172 0.018
 junior colleague or lower 150 (21.87) 374 (19.32) 49 (26.63)     
 University or above 536 (78.13) 1562 (80.68) 135 (73.37)     
Chronic disease history, n (%) 167 (24.34) 444 (22.93) 52 (28.26) 0.253    
Smoking, n (%) 91 (13.27) 334 (17.25) 47 (25.54) < 0.001 0.015 < 0.001 0.005
Drinking, n (%) 279 (40.67) 813 (41.99) 88 (47.83) 0.217    
Living in the Wuhan area, n(%) 20 (2.92) 63 (3.25) 13 (7.07) 0.018 0.663 0.009 0.008
Having symptoms or a diagnosis of COVID-19, n(%) 45 (6.56) 86 (4.44) 20 (10.87) < 0.001 0.029 0.048 < 0.001
Having relatives or acquaintances contracting COVID-19, n (%) 80 (11.66) 240 (12.40) 38 (20.65) 0.004 0.613 0.002 0.002
Getting support from family members, n (%)     0.001 0.015 < 0.001 0.005
 Unchanged or more 659 (96.06) 1811 (93.54) 163 (88.59)     
 Less 27 (3.94) 125 (6.46) 21 (11.41)     
Getting support from the outside world, n (%)     0.028 0.056 0.011 0.120
 Unchanged or more 599 (87.32) 1632 (84.30) 147 (79.89)     
 Less 87 (12.68) 304 (15.70) 37 (20.11)     
ISI score 6.70 ± 5.30 8.16 ± 5.67 10.22 ± 6.01 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
PHQ9 score 5.99 ± 4.74 6.92 ± 4.93 8.74 ± 4.89 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
ISER score 17.99 ± 14.18 21.08 ± 14.63 27.71 ± 16.96 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001