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Table 4 Comparison of demographic characteristics among the remission group, unchanged group and aggravation group according to headache frequency

From: Overall trend towards headache remission during the COVID-19 pandemic among Chinese patients with pre-existing headache highlights the role of family support

characteristics The remission group1 (n = 737) The unchanged group2 (n = 1790) The aggravation group3 (n = 279) P value P value Post hoc
1 vs 2 1 vs 3 2 vs 3
Male, n (%) 289 (39.21) 633 (35.36) 21 (43.47) 0.015 0.068 0.228 0.010
Age, n (%)     0.431    
  < 30 185 (25.10) 410 (22.91) 75 (26.88)     
 30–50 502 (68.11) 1263 (70.56) 190 (68.10)     
  > 50 50 (6.79) 117 (6.53) 14 (7.82)     
Education level, n (%)     0.260    
 junior colleague or lower 152 (20.62) 354 (19.78) 64 (24.01)     
 University or above 585 (79.38) 1456 (80.22) 212 (75.99)     
Chronic disease history, n (%) 184 (24.97) 385 (21.51) 94 (33.69) < 0.001 0.059 0.005 < 0.001
Smoking, n (%) 123 (16.69) 291 (16.26) 58 (20.79) 0.169    
Drinking, n (%) 316 (42.88) 725 (40.50) 139 (49.82) 0.012 0.270 0.047 0.003
Living in the Wuhan area, n (%) 18 (2.44) 59 (3.30) 19 (6.81) 0.003 0.256 0.001 0.004
Having symptoms or a diagnosis of
COVID-19, n(%)
41 (5.56) 75 (4.19) 35 (12.54) < 0.001 0.134 < 0.001 < 0.001
Having relatives or acquaintances contracting COVID-19, n (%) 90 (12.31) 202 (11.28) 66 (23.66) < 0.001 0.508 < 0.001 < 0.001
Getting support from family members, n (%)     0.027 0.407 0.071 0.007
 Unchanged or more 690 (93.62) 1691 (94.47) 252 (90.32)     
 Less 47 (6.38) 99 (5.53) 27 (9.68)     
Getting support from the outside world, n (%)     0.258    
 Unchanged or more 635 (86.16) 1514 (84.58) 229 (82.08)     
 Less 102 (13.84) 276 (15.42) 50 (17.92)     
ISI score 6.99 ± 5.48 8.25 ± 5.66 8.42 ± 5.93 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 1.000
PHQ9 score 6.18 ± 4.84 7.00 ± 4.88 7.28 ± 5.27 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 1.000
ISER score 18.79 ± 14.83 21.32 ± 14.57 22.36 ± 16.25 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 1.000