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Table 5 Comparison of demographic characteristics among the remission group, unchanged group and aggravation group according to headache intensity

From: Overall trend towards headache remission during the COVID-19 pandemic among Chinese patients with pre-existing headache highlights the role of family support

characteristics The remission group1 (n = 258) The unchanged group2 (n = 2451) The aggravation group3 (n = 97) P value P value Post hoc
1 vs 2 1 vs 3 2 vs 3
Male, n (%) 101 (39.15) 901 (36.76) 41 (42.27) 0.430    
Age, n (%)     0.047    
  < 30 77 (29.84) 563 (22.97) 30 (30.93)     
 30–50 163 (63.18) 1731 (70.62) 60 (61.86)     
  > 50 18 (6.98) 157 (6.41) 7 (7.21)     
Education level, n (%)     0.019 0.005 0.209 0.825
 junior colleague or lower 70 (27.13) 483 (19.71) 20 (20.62)     
 University or above 188 (72.87) 1968 (80.29) 77 (79.38)     
Chronic disease history, n (%) 68 (26.36) 567 (23.13) 28 (28.87) 0.238    
Smoking, n (%) 53 (20.54) 398 (16.24) 21 (21.65) < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 0.083
Drinking, n (%) 121 (46.90) 1010 (41.21) 49 (50.52) 0.048 0.078 0.543 0.068
Living in the Wuhan area, n (%) 11 (4.26) 77 (3.14) 8 (8.25) 0.019 0.334 0.137 0.006
Having symptoms or a diagnosis of
COVID-19, n(%)
20 (7.75) 121 (4.94) 10 (10.31) 0.015 0.053 0.440 0.030
Having relatives or acquaintances contracting COVID-19, n (%) 47 (18.22) 276 (11.26) 35 (36.08) < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
Getting support from family members, n (%)     0.002 0.060 0.170 0.001
 Unchanged or more 236 (91.47) 2313 (94.37) 84 (86.60)     
 Less 22 (8.53) 138 (5.63) 13 (13.40)     
Getting support from the outside world, n (%)     0.112    
 Unchanged or more 221 (85.66) 2082 (84.94) 75 (77.32)     
 Less 37 (14.34) 369 (15.06) 22 (22.68)     
ISI score 7.52 ± 5.57 8.04 ± 5.68 6.50 ± 5.44 0.009 0.494 0.225 0.014
PHQ9 score 6.83 ± 5.34 6.85 ± 4.90 5.80 ± 4.38 0.110    
ISER score 20.82 ± 15.42 20.86 ± 14.85 18.03 ± 13.39 0.294