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Table 1 Characteristics of individuals with Parkinson disease initiated on antipsychotic therapy, Optum 2001–2019

From: Low continuation of antipsychotic therapy in Parkinson disease – intolerance, ineffectiveness, or inertia?

Characteristic Type Pimavanserin
(n = 153)
Quetiapine
(n = 2452)
Aripiprazole
(n = 169)
Risperidone
(n = 462)
Olanzapine
(n = 304)
p-value
Demographic Age at initiation, years median (IQR) 75 (69–80) 77 (69–82) 72 (64–78) 78 (72–83) 76 (70–82) < 0.0001b
Age groups, n (col%)       < 0.0001a
40–59 years 4 (2.6) 166 (6.8) 18 (10.7) 21 (4.5) 22 (7.2)  
60 to 79 years 108 (70.6) 1389 (56.6) 119 (70.4) 249 (53.9) 179 (58.9)  
≥80 years 41 (26.8) 897 (36.6) 32 (18.9) 192 (41.6) 103 (33.9)  
Sex categories, n (col%)       < 0.0001a
Male 94 (61.4) 1429 (58.3) 54 (32.0) 225 (48.7) 155 (51.0)  
Female 59 (38.6) 1023 (41.7) 115 (68.0) 237 (51.3) 149 (49.0)  
Race categories, n (col%)       0.268a
White 96 (62.7) 1542 (62.9) 111 (65.7) 277 (60.0) 198 (65.1)  
Nonwhite 31 (20.3) 450 (18.3) 27 (16.0) 100 (21.6) 41 (13.5)  
Unknown/Missing 26 (17.0) 460 (18.8) 31 (18.3) 85 (18.4) 65 (21.4)  
Region, n (col %)       0.194a
Midwest 28 (18.3) 515 (21.0) 37 (21.9) 102 (22.1) 70 (23.0)  
Northeast 12 (7.8) 287 (11.7) 22 (13.0) 63 (13.6) 31 (10.2)  
South 70 (45.8) 984 (40.1) 81 (47.9) 183 (39.6) 115 (37.8)  
West 42 (27.4) 657 (26.8) 29 (17.2) 114 (24.7) 88 (28.9)  
Other 1 (0.6) 9 (0.4) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)  
Clinical Combined Charlson-Elixhauser comorbidity score, mean (SD) 1.6 (1.9) 1.9 (2.4) 1.9 (2.1) 2.2 (2.5) 2.2 (2.4) 0.0002b
Claims-based frailty index, mean (SD) 0.20 (0.05) 0.22 (0.06) 0.22 (0.06) 0.23 (0.07) 0.23 (0.07) < 0.0001b
CFI categories, n (col%)       < 0.0001a
Robust 24 (15.7) 301 (12.3) 15 (8.9) 40 (8.6) 28 (9.2)  
Prefrail 104 (68.0) 1526 (62.2) 100 (59.2) 253 (54.8) 173 (56.9)  
Mildly frail 20 (13.1) 514 (21.0) 48 (28.4) 149 (32.3) 84 (27.6)  
Moderate to severely frail 5 (3.3) 111 (4.5) 6 (3.5) 20 (4.3) 19 (6.3)  
Healthcare and medication use in 6 months prior to AP initiation # Medications filled per month, mean (SD) 3.5 (1.8) 4.1 (2.4) 5.4 (2.7) 4.5 (2.5) 4.5 (2.5) < 0.0001b
# Neurology visits, mean (SD) 1.3 (1.2) 1.2 (1.6) 0.9 (1.2) 1.0 (2.7) 0.9 (1.3) < 0.0001b
# ED visits, mean (SD) 0.3 (0.7) 0.5 (1.4) 0.8 (2.5) 0.6 (1.2) 0.7 (2.2) 0.0484b
# Inpatient admissions, mean (SD) 0.5 (3.3) 1.3 (4.0) 1.4 (3.6) 2.2 (6.9) 2.0 (5.1) < 0.0001b
  1. AP antipsychotic, CFI claims-based frailty index, ED emergency department, IQR interquartile range, SD standard deviation
  2. a Chi-square for categorical variables; b Kruskal-Wallis for continuous variables