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Table 2 Factors Associated with the Presence of Brain Herniation Syndrome

From: Quantitative assessments of pupillary light reflexes in hospital-onset unresponsiveness

Factor Univariable analysis
OR (95% CI)
p value Multivariable analysis
Adjusted OR (95% CI)
p value
Age, yr 0.95 (0.93–0.97) <  0.001 0.97 (0.94–0.99) 0.014
Male sex 1.00 (0.49–2.10) 0.987   
Modified Rankin Scale before admission ≥4 0.32 (0.11–0.77) 0.017   
Comorbidities
 Hypertension 0.40 (0.18–0.85) 0.021   
 Diabetes mellitus 0.27 (0.09–0.68) 0.011   
 Cardiac disease 0.71 (0.32–1.49) 0.384   
 Chronic lung disease 0.47 (0.07–1.74) 0.331   
 Chronic liver disease 2.25 (0.94–5.12) 0.058   
 Chronic kidney disease 0.32 (0.07–0.96) 0.072   
 Cancer 1.04 (0.49–2.13) 0.911   
 Previous stroke 0.59 (0.16–1.63) 0.357   
Findings on NAT activation
 Glasgow Coma Scale 0.79 (0.67–0.93) 0.005 0.83 (0.71–0.98) 0.027
 Hypotension 1.61 (0.43–4.97) 0.431   
 Tachycardia 1.78 (0.83–4.10) 0.151   
Quantitative measures on pupillometry
 NPi 0.54 (0.42–0.68) <  0.001 0.57 (0.45–0.74) <  0.001
 Max, mm 1.75 (1.32–2.37) <  0.001 1.54 (1.14–2.09) <  0.001
 Min, mm 1.74 (1.23–2.54) 0.002 1.51 (1.03–2.21) 0.034
 CH, % 0.96 (0.92–1.00) 0.066   
 CV, mm/sec 0.76 (0.46–1.20) 0.273   
 Lat, msec 1.00 (0.99–1.00) 0.227   
 DV, mm/sec 0.42 (0.14–1.16) 0.111   
  1. CH percentage of change (CH = 100 × [Max – Min]/Max), CI confidence interval, CV constriction velocity, DV dilation velocity, Lat latency of constriction, Max maximal pupillary diameter, Min minimal pupillary diameter, NAT Neurological Alert Team, NPi Neurological Pupil index, OR odds ratio