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Table 3 Factors Associated with Poor Neurological Outcomes at 3-months

From: Quantitative assessments of pupillary light reflexes in hospital-onset unresponsiveness

Factor Univariable analysis
OR (95% CI)
p value Multivariable analysis
Adjusted OR (95% CI)
p value
Age, yr 1.03 (1.01–1.06) <  0.001   
Male sex 1.47 (0.76–2.82) 0.241   
Modified Rankin Scale before admission ≥4 17.09 (5.03–107.0) <  0.001 13.7 (3.14–60.6) < 0.001
Comorbidities
 Hypertension 0.86 (0.45–1.65) 0.661   
 Diabetes mellitus 2.66 (1.25–6.22) 0.015   
 Cardiac disease 1.00 (0.51–1.98) 0.989   
 Chronic lung disease 0.96 (0.35–3.09) 0.945   
 Chronic liver disease 1.00 (0.43–2.54) 0.984   
 Chronic kidney disease 1.91 (0.79–5.35) 0.176   
 Cancer 2.24 (1.12–4.69) 0.025 2.24 (1.00–5.00) 0.031
 Previous stroke 5.30 (1.51–33.6) 0.026 4.89 (1.05–22.7) 0.043
Findings on NAT activation
 Glasgow Coma Scale 0.89 (0.77–1.01) 0.091   
 Hypotension 1.17 (0.34–5.37) 0.809   
 Tachycardia 1.01 (0.50–2.00) 0.960   
Etiology of hospital-onset unresponsiveness
 Metabolic encephalopathy 1.07 (0.56–2.08) 0.817   
 Ischemic stroke 2.76 (0.74–17.9) 0.185   
 Hemorrhagic stroke 3.74 (0.70–69.3) 0.211   
 Intracranial bleeding (subdural or epidural) 1.29 (0.18–25.7) 0.817   
 Brain tumor 3.69 (0.20–67.9) 0.448   
 Meningoencephalitis 2.32 (0.12–45.6) 0.754   
 Seizure 0.56 (0.28–1.12) 0.098   
 Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy 2.32 (0.12–45.6) 0.754   
 Others (syncope or psychogenic coma) 0.06 (0.00–1.32) 0.094   
Brain herniation syndrome 1.69 (0.69–4.75) 0.276   
Quantitative measures on pupillometry
 NPi 0.72 (0.54–0.93) 0.020 0.67 (0.49–0.90) 0.009
 Max, mm 0.95 (0.74–1.21) 0.695   
 Min, mm 1.08 (0.78–1.54) 0.619   
 CH, % 0.95 (0.92–0.98) 0.008 0.96 (0.93–1.00) 0.046
 CV, mm/sec 0.57 (0.39–0.83) 0.003   
 Lat, msec 1.01 (1.00–1.02) <  0.001 1.01 (1.00–1.02) 0.002
 DV, mm/sec 0.27 (0.12–0.60) 0.001 0.34 (0.14–0.84) 0.019
  1. Neurological outcomes were dichotomized into good outcome (mRS of 0–3) and poor outcome (mRS of 4–6)
  2. CH percentage of change (CH = 100 × [Max – Min]/Max), CI confidence interval, CV constriction velocity, DV dilation velocity, Lat latency of constriction, Max maximal pupillary diameter, Min minimal pupillary diameter, mRS modified Rankin Scale, NAT Neurological Alert Team, NPi Neurological Pupil index, OR odds ratio