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Table 4 Methods used to promote stability of visual evoked potential waveform

From: Intraoperative monitoring of visual evoked potentials in patients undergoing transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary adenoma: a systematic review

Study (Year) VEP waveform reproducibility / stability Mode of Anaesthesia Stimulus delivery device Simultaneous ERG Monitoring
Feng et al. (2019) [18] Not reported TIVA Flexible silicone patch LED goggles No
Qiao et al. (2019) [19] Not reported TIVA Light-proof goggles with a flashing LED No
Toyama et al. (2018) [20] 97% TIVA Round silicone disc embedded with 16 red high luminosity flashing (100mCd) LEDs Yes
Nishimura et al. (2018) [21] 98% TIVA Silicon discs with 16 red LEDs (100mCd) Yes
Kurozumi et al. (2017) [22] 100% Not reported 2 cm round silicone disc embedded with 16 red high luminosity flashing (100mCd) LEDs Yes
Luo et al. (2015) [23] 83% TIVA Transparent eye patches placed on the closed eyes. Then the light-stimulating device was placed on the eyelids and covered with another transparent eye patch No
Kamio et al. (2014) [7] 85% TIVA 2 cm soft silicone disc embedded with 16 red high luminosity flashing (100mCd) LEDs Yes
Houlden et al. (2014) [9] 83% TIVA/ Gas inhalation Goggle 3000mCd LED stimulators (3 LEDs on each side) No
Chung et al. (2012) [24] 90% TIVA Bright LED goggles (XLTEK, Ontario, Canada) No
Sasaki et al. (2010) [6] 94% TIVA 2 cm silicone disc embedded with 16 red high-luminosity (100mCd) LEDs Yes
Chacko et al. (1996) [25] Not reported Gas inhalation Red LEDs fitted on goggles No
  1. LED Light-emitting diode