Skip to main content

Table 4 Absolute normal difference distribution (mean ± standard deviation) from PD patients versus healthy controls (PDvsControl) and Parkinson’s disease patients between ON and OFF states (ONvsOFF) for each gait parameter [39,40,41,42]. Bias (mean ± standard deviation) values for each gait parameter for the inertial-based 3D full-body kinematics (IMU Bias) and the smartphone-based kinematics (Mob Bias). P-value is determined by Welch’s t-test when comparing PDvsControl / IMU Bias, PDvsControl / Mob Bias, ONvsOFF / IMU Bias and ONvsOFF / Mob Bias

From: Validation of quantitative gait analysis systems for Parkinson’s disease for use in supervised and unsupervised environments

  PDvsControl
mean ± SD
ONvsOFF
mean ± SD
IMU Bias
mean ± SD
Mob Bias
mean ± SD
PDvsControl / IMU Bias
p value
PDvsControl / Mob Bias
p value
ONvsOFF / IMU Bias
p value
ONvsOFF / Mob Bias
p value
Stride duration (s) 0.040 ± 0.126 0.03 ± 0,156 0.003 ± 0,015 −0.001 ± 0,027 0,0013 0,0014 0,0203 0,0166
Stance duration (s) 0.044 ± 0,093 0.032 ± 0,094 a −0.005 ± 0.021 −0.014 ± 0,033 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 0.0002 0.0002
Swing duration (s) 0.009 ± 0,273 0.007 ± 0,053 0.008 ± 0,022 0.011 ± 0,034 0,9754 0,9518 0,8876 0,6776
Double support time (s) 0.253 ± 0.035 a 0.164 ± 0,026 a −0.007 ± 0,021 < 0,0001 < 0,0001
Cadence (strides/min) 4.000 ± 16.101 3.500 ± 13.086 −0.175 ± 0,819 0.058 ± 1.405 0,0331 0,0458 0,0077 0,0141
Stride speed (m/s) 0.160 ± 0,325 a 0.060 ± 0,030 −0.004 ± 0,021 −0.004 ± 0,047 < 0,0001 < 0,0001 0,0040 0,0092
Stride length (m) 0.210 ± 0,292 a 0.140 ± 0,292 a −0.001 ± 0,023 −0.007 ± 0,037 < 0,0001 < 0,0001 < 0,0001 < 0,0001
Step width (m) 0.008 ± 0,031 0.001 ± 0,038 0.008 ± 0,021 > 0,9999 0,2520
  1. a – indicates that statistical significant differences were reached in the original study from which the normal difference distribution was pooled. Significant results are displayed in bold