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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of included studies

From: Risk factors for postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leakage after transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary adenoma: a meta-analysis and systematic review

Study (first author) Publication year Study type No. of cases
with postop
CSF leakage
Total no. of
Patients
Risk factors NOS score
Xu [14] 2013 case–control study 64 1641 3, 6 6
Cheng [15] 2014 case–control study 9 129 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 6
Tang [16] 2018 cohort study 3 120 4 6
Zhao [17] 2020 cohort study 40 158 5 8
Li [18] 2016 cohort study 10 162 5 8
Liu [19] 2020 case–control study 25 194 1, 2, 4, 6 8
Tian [20] 2018 case–control study 29 1063 1, 3, 4, 6 8
Yin [21] 2014 cohort study 6 81 5 8
Wang [22] 2018 case–control study 11 112 4, 6 8
Zhang [23] 2017 case–control study 10 114 1, 4, 6 8
Huang [24] 2018 case–control study 33 270 1, 2, 4, 6 8
Ding [25] 2019 cohort study 22 251 5 9
Liu [26] 2014 cohort study 2 64 5 8
He [27] 2015 cohort study 2 47 5 8
Wang [28] 2011 cohort study 1 40 5 8
Yang [29] 2017 cohort study 13 240 5 8
Wangx [30] 2018 cohort study 11 64 5 8
Zhou [31] 2015 cohort study 15 116 5 8
Liu [32] 2017 cohort study 4 116 5 8
Chen [33] 2012 case–control study 25 180 1, 2, 3 6
Agam [34] 2018 cohort study 30 1153 5 6
Fujimoto [35] 2017 case–control study 8 162 1, 4, 6 8
Gao [36] 2016 cohort study 11 105 5 8
Guvenc [38] 2016 cohort study 7 94 5 8
Han [9] 2008 case–control study 26 592 1, 2, 3, 4 8
Karppinen [39] 2015 cohort study 6 185 5 8
Liu [40] 2019 cohort study 12 189 6 9
Mehta [41] 2012 cohort study 8 158 6 8
Riesgo [37] 2019 case–control study 7 302 3, 4 6
Xue [42] 2020 case–control study 13 216 4 6
Mansy [43] 2010 cohort study 8 200 6 6
Zhangc [10] 2017 case–control study 13 474 4, 6 7
Dallapiazza [44] 2014 cohort study 9 99 5 8
Thawani [45] 2016 case–control study 21 203 4, 6 9
  1. Risk Factors: 1. Tumor size 2. Consistency of adenoma 3. Revision surgery 4. Intraoperative CSF 5. Operation method 6. Other factors: Sex, functional adenoma type, resection rate or perioperative lumbar drainage
  2. CSF cerebrospinal fluid, NOS Newcastle–Ottawa Scale