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Table 1 Between-group change scores for phantom limb pain (VAS score), quality of life domains (SF-36 scores) and mobility status (Amputee mobility predictor score) through independent t test

From: Effects of phantom exercises on pain, mobility, and quality of life among lower limb amputees; a randomized controlled trial

Variables   Experimental group Mean ± SD Control group Mean ± SD P-Value
Visual Analogue Scale Week 2 3.33 ± 0.89 4.08 ± 1.45 0.182
Week 4 2.25 ± 0.621 3.58 ± 1.24 0.003
Physical functioning Week 2 51.0 ± 11.1 53.9 ± 4.7 0.409
Week 4 56.7 ± 9.4 56.3 ± 6.8 0.902
Physical role limitations Week 2 56.7 ± 13.5 56.7 ± 6.6 0.130
Week 4 60.0 ± 13.0 61.0 ± 7.6 0.292
Bodily pain Week 2 56.4 ± 15.5 53.7 ± 13.2 0.644
Week 4 72.9 ± 16.2 55.4 ± 15.0 0.012
General health perceptions Week 2 62.1 ± 16.3 53.7 ± 6.9 0.514
Week 4 64.56 ± 13.4 61.8 ± 7.1 0.536
Energy/vitality Week 2 56.7 ± 7.2 58.3 ± 11.9 0.682
Week 4 61.3 ± 8.3 62.5 ± 14.1 0.793
Social functioning Week 2 53.7 ± 14.5 57.5 ± 12.3 0.502
Week 4 55.4 ± 14.2 59.6 ± 12.3 0.451
Emotional role limitations Week 2 56.7 ± 17.2 56.3 ± 16.4 0.952
Week 4 58.3 ± 17.2 56.7 ± 16.8 0.813
Mental health Week 2 58.8 ± 11.3 57.6 ± 13.4 0.807
Week 4 61.3 ± 12.1 58.3 ± 13.2 0.578
Amputee Mobility predictor Week 2 21.25 ± 2.96 21.50 ± 2.96 0.887
Week 4 25.92 ± 4.12 24.33 ± 4.61 0.385