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Table 1 Baseline and three-month characteristics according to the first event after three-month follow-up

From: Neopterin and kynurenic acid as predictors of stroke recurrence and mortality: a multicentre prospective cohort study on biomarkers of inflammation measured three months after ischemic stroke

  All
N = 354
New IS
N = 16
Death
N = 251
No event
N = 313
P-value
Age2,3, mean years (SD) 73 (11) 73 (10) 82 (9) 73 (11) < 0.001
Male4 sex, n (%) 201 (57) 11 (69) 16 (64) 174 (56) 0.439
Observation time3, mean years (SD) 2.5 (6) 1.5 (1.0) 1.6 (0.7) 2.6 (0.5) < 0.001
Baseline
TOAST4 subtype6, n (%)      0.661
Large artery 30 (9) 1 (6) 0 29 (10)  
Cardioembolic 72 (21) 5 (31) 6 (24) 61 (20)  
Small vessel disease 83 (24) 4 (25) 6 (7) 73 (24)  
Other determined 10 (3) 1 (6) 0 9 (3)  
Undetermined 128 (43) 5 (31) 13 (52) 128 (43)  
Prior IS4, n (%) 72 (20) 7 (44) 13 (52) 52 (17) < 0.001
Prior CHD4, n (%) 61 (17) 3 (19) 10 (40) 48 (13) 0.007
Atrial fibrillation4, n (%) 89 (25) 6 (37) 11 (44) 72 (23) 0.034
Hypertension4, n (%) 202 (57) 11 (69) 19 (76) 172 (60) 0.077
Hypercholesterolemia4, n (%) 178 (50) 8 (50) 16 (64) 154 (46) 0363
Diabetes mellitus4, n (%) 60 (17.0) 0 6 (24) 54 (17) 0.124
Three-months
NIHSS5 median (IQR) 0 (1) 1 (1) 0.5(3) 0 (1) 0.122
BI5 median (IQR) 100 (0) 100 (0) 95 (17) 100 (0) 0.017
mRS5 median (IQR) 1 (1) 2 (1) 3 (2) 1 (1) < 0.001
Waist2, 3, mean cm (SD) 95 (13) 89 (15) 98 (15) 95 (13) 0.137
Current smoking2, 4, n (%) 31 (9) 1 (7) 4 (17) 26 (9) 0.597
Laboratory measures2,5
CRP, median (IQR), n = 267 1.6 (2.9) 1.1 (5.3) 3.0 (26.5) 1.6 (2.9) 0.053
IL-6, median (IQR), n = 334 4.6 (4.5) 4.8 (4.1) 6.1 (6.1) 4.2 (4.2) 0.038
Neopterin, median (IQR), n = 334 16 (10) 17 (12) 24 (17) 16 (9) < 0.001
PAr-index, median (IQR), n = 334 0.62 (0.46) 0.57 (0.80) 1.0 (0.8) 0.60 (0.42) 0.002
Kynurenic acid, n = 334 58 (30) 56 (35) 65 (52) 59 (29) 0.522
  1. IS = ischemic stroke. TOAST = Trial of Org 10,172 in Acute Stroke Treatment. CHD = coronary heart disease. NIHSS=National Institute of Stroke Scale. IQR = interquartile range. BI = Barthels Index. mRS = modified Rankin Scale. CRP = C-reactive protein. IL-6 = Interleukin-6. PAr-index = pyridoxic acid ratio-index = 4-pyridoxic acid:(pyridoxal+pyridoxal 5′-phosphate)
  2. 1Additionally, three patients died after having recurrent strokes
  3. 2At three months
  4. 3The one-way ANOVA was used for the continuous variables
  5. 4The chi-squared test was used for the categorical variables
  6. 5For the continuous variables with non-normal distribution, the non-parametric Kruskal–Wallis H-test was used
  7. 6TOAST subtype of index stroke