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Table 3 Crude and adjusted Cox regressions of the association between the individual biomarkers and ischemic stroke recurrence, death and the composite endpoint (ischemic stroke recurrence and death)

From: Neopterin and kynurenic acid as predictors of stroke recurrence and mortality: a multicentre prospective cohort study on biomarkers of inflammation measured three months after ischemic stroke

   Crude Model 1 Model 2
  HR CI P HR CI p HR CI P
Recurrent ischemic stroke, N = 16
  CRP1) 0.90 (0.44, 1.83) 0.772 0.86 (0.41, 1.77) 0.674 0.92 (0.44, 1.90) 0.816
  IL-6 1.11 (0.67, 1.86) 0.686 1.19 (0.52, 1.97) 0.578 1.10 (0.30, 2.02) 0.754
  Neopterin 1.34 (0.85, 2.11) 0.209 1.45 (0.82, 2.57) 0.201 1.39 (0.80, 2.41) 0.244
  PAr 1.16 (0.71, 1.90) 0.553 1.13 (0.61, 2.10) 0.692 1.24 (0.67, 2.31) 0.494
  KA 0.91 (0.55, 1.50) 0.710 0.82 (0.41, 1.61) 0.563 0.89 (0.43, 1.86) 0.761
Death2, N = 28
  CRP1) 1.81 (1.29, 2.53) 0.001 1.40 (1.01, 1.96) 0.046 1.41 (1.00, 1.99) 0.053
  IL-6 1.74 (1.20, 2.51) 0.003 1.34 (0.87, 2.07) 0.181 1.36 (0.87, 2.12) 0.173
  Neopterin 1.93 (1.43, 2.61) < 0.001 1.44 (0.89, 2.33) 0.136 1.55 (0.91, 2.64) 0.104
  PAr 1.69 (1.15, 2.49) 0.008 1.11 (0.68, 1.82) 0.666 1.13 (0.67, 1.90) 0.641
  KA 1.12 (0.75, 1.66) 0.577 0.64 (0.38, 1.07) 0.088 0.69 (0.41, 1.14) 0.145
Stroke and death, N = 41
  CRP1) 1.59 (1.16, 2.18) 0.004 1.27 (0.92, 1.74) 0.140 1.27 (0.93, 1.74) 0.135
  IL-6 1.47 (1.08, 2.02) 0.016 1.23 (0.85, 1.77) 0.274 1.23 (0.85, 1.77) 0.275
  Neopterin 1.79 (1.39, 2.31) < 0.001 1.52 (1.06, 2.20) 0.023 1.55 (1.06, 2.27) 0.025
  PAr 1.62 (1.19, 2.22) 0.002 1.28 (0.86, 1.90) 0.224 1.34 (0.89, 2.01) 0.162
  KA 1.27 (0.58, 2.79) 0.555 0.55 (0.19, 1.54) 0.252 0.60 (0.21, 1.71) 0.339
  1. HR = hazard ratio. CI = confidence interval. CRP = C-reactive protein. IL-6 = Interleukin-6. PAr = PAr-index = pyridoxic acid ratio-index = 4-pyridoxic acid:(pyridoxal+pyridoxal-5`-phosphate). KA = kynurenic acid. Each biomarker was investigated individually
  2. Model 1: Age, sex, prior cerebrovascular disease, modified Rankin Scale at 3 months, creatinine
  3. Model 2: As in model 1 + TOAST-classification at baseline (TOAST = Trial of Org 10,172 in Acute Stroke Treatment)
  4. 1For CRP, N = 212, 8 and 13 for all, recurrent IS and death, respectively
  5. 2Includes both those with and without ischemic stroke recurrence prior to death