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Table 1 Clinical presentation of patients with anti-AMPAR encephalitis

From: Clinical characteristics and prognosis of anti-alpha-Amino-3-Hydroxy-5-Methyl-4-Isoxazolepropionic acid receptor encephalitis

Case Number Age (years)/sex Onset to Diagnosis (weeks) Onset mode Initial symptoms Other symptoms presented during disease course MRI (interval since disease onset) EEG CSF AMPAR antibodies (sample type and titer) Other antibodies Tumor state
1 68/F 57 Subacute Psychiatric disturbances Confusion, amnesia, ataxia, dysarthria, urinary incontinence Increased signal in right basal ganglia (10 days) Diffuse low amplitude beta wave activity Normal WBC, 55 mg/dL protein CSF 1:32; blood 1:32 Blood Hu (+) Not Found
2 52/M 32 Acute Amnesia Confusion, psychiatric disturbances Increased signal in bilateral frontal subcortex (7 months) NA Normal WBC, 84 mg/dL protein CSF (−); blood 1:10 (−) Lung cancer by contrast-enhanced CT
3 51/F 20 Chronic Amnesia Sleep disorders, dizziness, right leg numbness and paresis Increased signal in left medial frontoparietal lobe, right cingulate cortex, and bilateral cerebellar hemispheres
(10 months)
NA Normal WBC, 66 mg/dL protein CSF 1:10; blood 1:32 (−) Not Found
4 76/F 3 Acute Psychiatric disturbances and amnesia Normal (1 week) Normal WBC 15/μL, normal protein CSF (−); blood 1:10 (−) Small cell lung carcinoma by pathology
5 64/F 11 Chronic Psychiatric disturbances and amnesia Confusion NA NA NA CSF (−); blood 1:100 NA Thymoma by pathology
6 50/F NA Subacute Psychiatric disturbances and amnesia Confusion, intermittent fever Normal (2 weeks) Normal Normal WBC, normal protein CSF (+); blood (+), both titers unknown NA Malignant thymoma (B3) by pathology
7 59/F 12 Subacute Amnesia Confusion, altered level of consciousness, psychiatric disturbances, involuntary movement, dizziness, right face and perioral numbness Increased signal in left frontal lobe, left parietal lobe and right temporal lobe (2 months) Diffuse abnormal (low amplitude and decreased slow wave activities) Normal WBC, 58 mg/dL protein CSF 1:100; blood 1:100 NA Malignant thymoma (B3) by pathology
8 63/M 5 Chronic Amnesia, psychiatric disturbances and ataxia Confusion, sleep disorders, bilateral deafness, dysphagia Increased signal in medial temporal lobes (9 days) Slightly increased theta activity Normal WBC, 86 mg/dL protein CSF 1:10; blood 1:100 (−) Not Found
9 51/F 3 Acute psychiatric disturbances Confusion, fever, apathy, dysarthria, dysphagia, arrythmia, difficulty in defecation and urination, central hypoventilation Diffuse increased signal in bilateral cortex and subcortex (1 week) NA Normal WBC, normal protein CSF (+); blood (+), both titers unknown Blood Hu (+) Possible thymoma by CT
  1. Abbreviations: CSF Cerebrospinal fluid, CT Computed tomography, EEG Electroencephalogram, MRI Magnetic resonance imaging, NA Not available, WBC White blood cells