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Table 1 Demographical and clinical characteristics and results from CSF analysis of included patients. For groups, values resemble mean with SD in brackets

From: Toscana virus encephalitis in Southwest Germany: a retrospective study

  Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Case 4 TOSV overall (n = 4) Enterovirus (n = 27)
TOSV-Antibiodies in serum (baseline) IgM: 1/320
IgG: 1/1280
IgM: 1/1280
IgG: 1/320
IgM: 1/160 IgM: 1/80   
TOSV-Antibiodies in serum (1–2 weeks) IgM: 1/1280
IgG: 1/5120
IgM: 1/640
IgG: 1/640
n.a. n.a.   
TOSV-Antibodies in CSF IgG (1:20) n.a. negative negative   
TOSV diagnosis definite definite possible possible   
Age [yrs] 70 21 71 80 60.5 (26.7) 35
Sex m f f f   14 f: 13 m
Clinical presentation meningoencephalitis meningitis, myelitis meningoencephalitis meningoencephalitis   meningitis (100%)
CSF cell count [/μl] 162 681 10 53 226.5 (309.7) 319.8 (395.6)
Total protein [mg/dl] 736 3460 612 498 1326.5 (1425.7) 60.7 (21.9)
AQa 9.4 52.3 2.67 7.9 18.1 (23.0) 7.2 (2.8)
Intrathecal Immunoglobulin-synthesis IgM none none none   IgM n = 2
IgA n = 2
Lactate [mmol/l] 3.62 4.93 2.67 1.91 3.3 (1.3) 2.2 (0.6)
CSF cytology lymphocytes 90%, monocytes 10% activated lymphocytes + granulocytes 60%
lymphocytes 30%
monocytes 10%
lymphocytes 90%
monocytes 10%
lymphocytes: 90%
monocytes: 10%
  
MRI/CT abnormalities none none none none none none
WBCa 5.52 6.6 9.0 7.8 7.23 (1.5) 8.1 (2.5)
CRP [mg/l]a < 3 8 9 53 23.3 (25.7) 13.7 (14.1)
Transaminasesa normal AST, ALT, GGT elevated normal normal   1/27 elevated GGT/ALT
Lenght of stay in hospital [days] 7 18 14 16 13.75 (4.8) 5.5 (2.8)
Clinical outcome no sequelae Residual paraparesis, slight cognitive impairment no sequelae no sequelae 1/4 (25%) sequelae 3/27 (11%) sequelae
(headache n = 1, fatigue n = 2)
  1. aAQ albumin quotient, WBC white blood cell count, CRP C-reactive protein, AST aspartat transaminase, ALT alanin transaminase, GGT gamma-glutamyltransferase