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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the total sample and stratification by follow-up walking speed limitation

From: Cerebral small vessel disease, cardiovascular risk factors, and future walking speed in old age: a population-based cohort study

Characteristics Total sample
(n = 331)
Follow-up walking speed limitation
No (n = 255) Yes (n = 76) P value
Age (years), mean (SD) 68.9 (8.3) 66.2 (6.8) 77.7 (6.3) < 0.001
Women, n (%) 193 (58.31) 142 (55.7) 51 (67.1) 0.08
Education, n (%)     0.01
 Elementary 32 (9.7) 22 (8.6) 10 (13.2)  
 High School 141 (42.6) 100 (39.2) 41 (54.0)  
 University 158 (47.7) 133 (52.2) 25 (32.9)  
MMSE scorea, mean (SD) 29.3 (0.9) 29.3 (0.9) 29.0 (1.1) 0.02
High CRP a, n (%) 54 (16.6) 38 (15.2) 16 (21.1) 0.23
Number of chronic diseases, mean (SD) 3.2 (2.0) 3.0 (1.8) 5.0 (2.2) < 0.001
Physically inactive, n (%) 54 (16.3) 43 (16.9) 11 (14.5) 0.62
Heavy alcohol consumption, n (%) 65 (19.6) 51 (20.0) 14 (18.4) 0.76
Ever smoking, n (%) 186 (56.2) 152 (59.6) 34 (44.7) 0.02
SBP, mean (SD) 141.4 (19.1) 139.7 (18.6) 147.3 (19.5) 0.002
DBP, mean (SD) 83.2 (10.0) 83.3 (10.0) 82.7 (10.0) 0.62
Anti-hypertensive agents, n (%) 108 (32.6) 68 (26.7) 40 (52.6) < 0.001
Diabetes, n (%) 22 (6.7) 16 (6.3) 6 (7.9) 0.62
High total cholesterol a, n (%) 192 (58.7) 146 (58.2) 46 (60.5) 0.71
BMI (kg/m2), n (%)     0.47
 Underweight (< 20) 12 (3.6) 11 (4.3) 1 (1.3)  
 Normal (20-24.9) 134 (40.5) 99 (38.8) 35 (46.1)  
 Overweight (25-29.9) 147 (44.4) 116 (45.5) 31 (40.8)  
 Obese (≥30) 38 (11.5) 29 (11.4) 9 (11.8)  
Atrial fibrillation, n (%) 17 (5.1) 13 (5.1) 4 (5.3) 0.95
Coronary heart disease, n (%) 24 (7.3) 19 (7.5) 5 (6.6) 0.80
Heart failure, n (%) 13 (3.9) 6 (2.4) 7 (9.2) 0.01
Cerebrovascular diseases, n (%) 10 (3.0) 5 (2.0) 5 (6.6) 0.04
WMH volume b, mean (SD) 0.8 (1.3) 0.6 (1.2) 1.3 (1.3) < 0.001
WMH volume, n (%)     0.001
 1st Tertile 118 (35.7) 101 (39.6) 17 (22.4)  
 2nd Tertile 126 (38.1) 99 (38.8) 27 (35.5)  
 3rd Tertile 87 (26.3) 55 (21.6) 32 (42.1)  
PVS score, mean (SD) 15.6 (4.5) 15.4 (4.6) 16.2 (4.5) 0.20
PVS, n (%)     0.46
 1st Tertile 103 (31.1) 82 (32.2) 21 (27.6)  
 2nd Tertile 121 (36.6) 95 (37.3) 26 (34.2)  
 3rd Tertile 107 (32.3) 78 (30.6) 29 (38.2)  
Presence of lacunes, n (%) 37 (11.2) 22 (8.6) 15 (19.7) 0.01
cSVD burden, n (%)     < 0.001
 0 159 (48.0) 138 (54.1) 21 (27.6)  
 1 118 (35.7) 82 (32.2) 36 (47.4)  
 2 or 3 54 (16.3) 35 (13.7) 19 (25.0)  
  1. a Data were missing for 15 persons in MMSE score, 5 in CRP, and 4 in total cholesterol
  2. b Volume was corrected for total brain tissue volume
  3. SD standard deviation, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, WMH white matter hyperintensities, PVS perivascular spaces, CRP C-reactive protein, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, BMI body mass index, cSVD cerebral small vessel disease
  4. P value is for the test of comparisons between people with and without incident walking speed limitation during the follow-up period