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Table 4 Individuals with any or specific neurodegenerative disease (exposed), compared to individuals without such a condition (unexposed) - an analysis among all participants with a positive test result for COVID-19

From: COVID-19 related outcomes among individuals with neurodegenerative diseases: a cohort analysis in the UK biobank

  No.(%) of cases Odds Ratioa
Exposed Unexposed
COVID-19 related death
 Any neurodegenerative disease 195/718 (27.2) 986/17220 (5.7) 2.08 (1.71, 2.53)
  Primary neurodegenerative diseases 132/512 (25.8) 1049/17426 (6.0) 1.91 (1.52, 2.40)
  Vascular neurodegenerative diseases 47/143 (32.9) 1134/17795 (6.4) 1.89 (1.29, 2.77)
  Other neurodegenerative diseases 98/322 (30.4) 1083/17616 (6.1) 2.16 (1.65, 2.82)
 Selected specific neurodegenerative diseases
  Alzheimer’s disease 54/220 (24.5) 1127/17718 (6.4) 1.58 (1.12, 2.21)
  Parkinson’s disease 52/196 (26.5) 1129/17742 (6.4) 1.97 (1.39, 2.78)
  1. a Odds Ratio (95%) were derived from logistic regression models, which were adjusted for birth year, sex, race/ethnicity, body mass index, smoking, alcohol use, Townsend deprivation index, annual household income, educational attainment, and Charlson Comorbidity Index