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Table 2 Adjusted mean scores* on semantic and phonemic verbal fluency measures for cases and controls: a) cases with a history of headache, b) headache as the first symptom

From: Verbal fluency as a quick and simple tool to help in deciding when to refer patients with a possible brain tumour

  Patients Controls Mean diff (95% CI) p value Effect Size (Cohen’s d)
Verbal fluency, mean (SD)
Cases with a history of headache N= 102 N= 90    
Animals
 Total 13.0 (5.04) 17.8 (5.05) -4.9 (-6.32,-3.42)  < 0.001 -0.97
 Mean cluster 1.1 (0.98) 1.7 (0.95) -0.6 (-0.9,-0.3)  < 0.001 -0.62
 Switch 5.9 (3.30) 6.9 (3.31) -0.9 (-1.9,0.4) 0.06 -0.30
Letter P
 Total 8.8 (4.75) 11 (4.74) -2.2 (-3.6,-0.86) 0.001 -0.47
 Mean cluster 0.29 (0.33) 0.4 (0.38) -0.1 (-0.2,-0.02) 0.018 -0.32
 Switch 6.5 (3.99) 7.7 (4.00) -1.15 (-2.3,-0.0) 0.05 -0.31
Cases with headache as 1st symptom N= 56 N= 90    
Animals
 Total 13.6 (5.07) 17.9 (5.03) -4.2 (-5.9,-2.5)  < 0.001 -0.85
 Mean cluster 1.1 (1.07) 1.7 (0.95) -0.6 (-0.9,-0.2) 0.001 -0.62
 Switch 6.3 (3.33) 6.9 (3.31) -0.6 (0.6) 0.34 -0.18
Letter P
 Total 9.3 (4.71) 10.9 (4.71) -1.7 (-3.3,-0.1) 0.037 -0.34
 Mean cluster 0.3 (0.37) 0.4 (0.36) -0.1 (-0.2,0.5) 0.24 -0.27
 Switch 6.7 (4.03) 7.7 (4.00) -1.0 (-2.4,0.4) 0.16 -0.25