Skip to main content

Table 1 Baseline characteristics, clinical symptoms and laboratory and MRI findings of patients with ICH before and during the COVID-19 pandemic

From: Association of blood eicosapentaenoic acid levels with intracerebral hemorrhage during the COVID-19 pandemic: preliminary experience from a single-center in Japan

  Total COVID-19 pandemic  
Variables N = 103 Previous
n = 91, 88%
Midst
n = 12, 12%
P
Mean age, y 67.0 ± 13.9 68.3 ± 13.5 57.8 ± 14.3 0.027
Male gender, n (%) 67 (65) 58 (64) 9 (75) 0.655
BMI, kg/m2, a 23.0 ± 4.1 23.0 ± 4.0 23.0 ± 5.2 0.85
Systolic BP, mmHg 172.3 ± 52.7 171.5 ± 54.7 178.3 ± 34.6 0.441
Diastolic BP, mmHg 95.0 ± 22.4 93.7 ± 22.1 104.8 ± 24.6 0.057
Risk factors, n (%)
 Hypertension 93 (90) 84 (92) 9 (75) 0.166
 Diabetes mellitus 20 (19) 19 (21) 1 (8) 0.519
 Dyslipidemia 64 (62) 60 (66) 4 (33) 0.061
 Smoking 24 (23) 20 (22) 4 (33) 0.609
 Chronic kidney disease 20 (19) 19 (21) 1 (8) 0.519
 Atrial fibrillation 11 (11) 10 (11) 1 (8) 0.828
 Ischemic heart disease 11 (11) 10 (11) 1 (8) 0.828
 History of stroke 17 (17) 16 (18) 1 (8) 0.691
Preceding treatment, n (%)
 Oral anticoagulants 11 (11) 10 (11) 1 (8) 0.828
 Antiplatelet agents 19 (18) 18 (20) 1 (8) 0.572
Clinical symptoms
 mRS before ICH 0.5 ± 1.1 0.6 ± 1.1 0.2 ± 0.6 0.189
 NIHSS on admission 8.5 ± 9.1 8.4 ± 9.4 9.4 ± 6.4 0.285
 mRS at discharge 2.5 ± 1.9 2.4 ± 1.9 2.7 ± 1.8 0.646
 NIHSS at discharge 6.6 ± 11.6 6.6 ± 11.8 6.6 ± 10.3 0.386
 Neurological deterioration with NIHSS ≥4 7 (7) 6 (7) 1 (8) 0.7
 Death during hospitalization 6 (6) 6 (7) 0 (0) 0.794
Latency from ICH onset to radiological imaging, b 269 ± 314 290 ± 334 149 ± 113 0.106
CT findings
 Hematoma volume (cm3) 16.8 ± 26.5 17.1 ± 27.9 14.6 ± 11.1 0.371
 Hematoma expansion 7 (7) 10 (11) 2 (17) 0.922
 Intraventricular penetration 34 (33) 31 (34) 3 (25) 0.763
MRI findings
 Location of hemorrhage     0.245
  Thalamus 28 (27) 26 (29) 2 (17)  
  Putamen 38 (37) 30 (33) 8 (67)  
  Subcortical 26 (25) 25 (27) 1 (8)  
  Infratentorium 7 (7) 6 (7) 1 (8)  
  Others 4 (4) 4 (4) 0 (0)  
 PVH 1.3 ± 0.9 1.3 ± 0.9 1.3 ± 0.9 0.69
 DSWMH 1.1 ± 0.9 1.1 ± 0.9 0.8 ± 0.6 0.208
 CMBs 67 (68) 59 (69) 8 (67) 0.844
Latency from ICH onset to blood sampling, b 244 ± 310 266 ± 330 123 ± 100 0.239
Laboratory findings
 LDL-C, mg/dl, a 111.1 ± 41.6 111.8 ± 42.9 106.3 ± 28.9 0.783
 HDL-C, mg/dl, a 56.2 ± 19.5 56.2 ± 20.0 56.6 ± 14.7 0.835
 Triglyceride, mg/dl, a 127.0 ± 99.6 123.9 ± 95.7 150.3 ± 126.8 0.763
 eGFR (ml/min) 78.0 ± 31.1 76.8 ± 31.3 86.8 ± 29.4 0.149
 BS (mg/dl) 129.9 ± 39.3 131.9 ± 41.3 114.4 ± 14.6 0.113
 Hemoglobin A1c (%), c 5.8 ± 0.7 5.8 ± 0.7 5.7 ± 0.3 0.717
 Hs-CRP (mg/dl) 0.4 ± 1.2 0.4 ± 1.3 0.2 ± 0.3 0.491
 PT-INR, a 1.12 ± 0.40 1.13 ± 0.40 1.09 ± 0.43 0.025
 APTT/Control, a 1.02 ± 0.19 1.02 ± 0.19 1.07 ± 0.19 0.253
 D-dimer (μg/ml), a 4.2 ± 15.7 4.5 ± 16.6 1.4 ± 1.0 0.44
  1. Chi-square test and the Mann−Whitney U test were used for comparison. ICH Intracerebral hemorrhage, COVID-19 Coronavirus disease 2019, BMI Body mass index, BP Blood pressure, LDL-C Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-C High-density lipoprotein cholesterol, eGFR Estimated glomerular filtration rate, BS Body sugar, hs-CRP High sensitive C reactive protein, PT-INR Prothrombin time-international normalized ratio, APTT Activated partial thromboplastin time, NA Not available, Chronic kidney disease was defined as eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2. Missing values: a, n = 1; b, n = 18; c, n = 2