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Table 1 Clinical and neuroimaging features of the cases included in this study

From: Epilepsy in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with ExtraCorporeal Circulation: case series and description of a peculiar clinical phenotype

  Age, sex Age at cardiac surgery Follow-up (years) Type of cardiac surgery Time to seizure onset post-surgery Seizure semiology Seizure duration Seizure frequency NAP EEG MRI Therapy Outcome
Field Strength GRE sequences Microbleeds (number and location) Leukoaraiosis (Fazekas score) Cortical infarcts   
Case 1 57, M 53 4 mitral valve reparation and ring annuloplasty one week 1) bitter taste and perioral plus distal left hand fingers paresthesia
2) visual blackening in the left upper visual field quadrant
few second-max 1–2 min Weekly/ monthly 1) spikes and slow waves in right PO
2) spikes and slow waves in left FT
1.5 T SWI 3 lobar supratentorial MBs in the subcortical white matter of the right hemisphere 0 none LEV 1500 mg/day Seizure free
Case 2 74, W 71 3 aortic biological prosthesis placement few weeks cold sensation rapidly ascending from the lower limbs then turning in sensation of heat rising from the chest to the face, associated with fear and bad smell few minutes Weekly/daily/multidaily 1) spikes in right FCT
2) slow and sharp waves in left FT
1.5 T SWAN 0 1 none LTG 250 mg/die Seizure free
Case 3 46, M 32 14 mitral valve replacement with mechanical prosthesis some weeks 1) sudden onset of dream-like weird thought with slight anguish followed by intense nausea during few seconds and sometimes associated with olfactory sensation not always unpleasant
2) double and blurred/dark vision prevailing the left part of the visual field
few seconds Monthly/weekly/daily/multidaily 1) sharp waves in right PO
2) spikes in left FT
1.5 T T2* 4 lobar supratentorial MBs (3 in the subcortical white matter of the right frontal lobe and 1 cortical right occipital) 0 none LCS 300 mg/die Marked reduction in frequency and duration
Case 4 48, M 41 7 ascending aorta replacement with aortic root graft five days tingling sensation starting from the right arm and spreading to the right leg 30–40 s weekly/daily sharp waves and spikes in left FP 1.5 T T2* 1 lobar supratentorial MB 0 none LEV 2500 mg/day Seizure free
  1. AbbreviationsNAP EEG EEG during sleep, FT Fronto-temporal, FCT Fronto-central-temporal , GRE Gradient echo, LEV Levetiracetam, LTG Lamotrigine, LCS Lacosamide, MRI Magnetic Resonance Imaging, MBs Microbleeds, PO parieto-occipital, SWI Susceptibility weighted imaging, SWAN Susceptibility-weighted angiography