Skip to main content

Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the participants according to median of the glucose-to-HbA1c ratio

From: Stress hyperglycemia is predictive of clinical outcomes in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage

  Overall(n = 586) glucose-to-HbA1c ratio P value
<1.02(n = 293) ≥1.02(n = 293)
Male, n (%) 412 (70.3) 209 (71.3) 203 (69.2) 0.59
Age (years) 58.5 ± 13.2 56.9 ± 12.7 60.1 ± 13.5 <0.01
Current smoking, n (%) 207 (35.3) 97 (33.1) 110 (37.5) 0.12
Alcohol consumption, n (%) 252 (43.0) 126 (43.0) 126 (43.0) 0.42
Hypertension, n (%) 560 (95.6) 276 (94.2) 284 (96.9) 0.11
Diabetes mellitus, n (%) 144 (24.6) 58 (19.8) 86 (29.4) <0.01
Dyslipidemia, n (%) 218 (37.2) 117 (39.9) 101 (34.5) 0.17
History of cerebral infarction, n (%) 96 (16.4) 46 (15.7) 50 (17.1) 0.66
Prior antidiabetic agents, n (%) 75 (12.8) 29 (9.9) 46 (15.7) 0.1
SBP (mmHg) 163.0(150.0–181.0) 160.0 (148.0–177.0) 168.0 (150.0–188.0) <0.001
DBP (mmHg) 96.0 (83.0–107.0) 95..0 (84.0–105.0) 98.0 (83.0–109.0) 0.21
GCS score 14.0 (12.0–15.0) 15.0 (13.0–15.0) 14.0 (11.0–15.0) <0.001
NIHSS score 9.0 (3.0–15.0) 7.0 (3.0–13.0) 10.0 (3.0–16.0) <0.001
Location of hematoma, n (%)     <0.01
 lobar 102 (17.4) 49 (16.7) 53 (18.1)  
 deep 363 (62.0) 199 (67.9) 164 (56.0)  
 infratentorial 50 (8.5) 20 (6.8) 30 (10.2)  
Hematoma volume (ml) 13.0 (5.5–29.4) 10.0 (4.5–21.2) 18.7 (7.4–36.5) <0.001
intraventricular extension, n (%) 176 (30.0) 59 (20.1) 117 (39.9) <0.001
eGFR (ml/min) 54.7 (51.1–58.2) 55 .0 (51.6–58.3) 54.3 (50.4–58.0) 0.08
FBG (mmol/l) 5.8 (4.9–7.1) 4.9 (4.4–5.4) 6.8 (6.0–8.2) <0.001
HbA1c (%) 5.6 (5.3–6.1) 5.6 (5.3–6.1) 5.6 (5.2–6.2) 0.86
hsCRP (mg/l) 8.7 (4.6–8.7) 8.7 (2.8–8.7) 8.7 (8.7–11.1) <0.001
Post-stroke treatment of hyperglycemia, n (%) 114 (19.5) 41 (14.0) 73 (24.9) <0.01
Surgery, n (%) 86 (14.7) 14 (4.8) 72 (24.6) <0.001
Poor functional outcome at discharge, n (%) 292 (49.8) 100 (34.1) 192 (65.5) <0.001
Poor functional outcome at 90 days, n (%) 256 (43.7) 85 (29.0) 171 (58.4) <0.001
  1. Continuous variables are expressed as means ± (SD) or medians (IQR)
  2. SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, GCS Glasgow Coma Scale, NIHSS National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, FBG fasting blood glucose, HbA1c Glycated hemoglobin, hsCRP high-sensitivity C-reactive protein