Skip to content


Cerebrovascular disease and stroke

Section edited by Erwin Stolz and Szatmari Szabolcs

This section is dedicated to covering all aspects of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to, ischemic stroke, spontaneous intracranial bleeding, sinus thrombosis, carotid or vertebral artery disease, cerebrovascular physiology, and neuroimaging related to cerebrovascular diseases.

Page 4 of 8

  1. Content type: Research article

    Carotid artery stenosis is a frequent cause of ischemic stroke. While any degree of stenosis can cause embolic stroke, a higher degree of stenosis can also cause hemodynamic infarction. The hemodynamic effect ...

    Authors: Sibu Mundiyanapurath, Peter Arthur Ringleb, Sascha Diatschuk, Oliver Eidel, Sina Burth, Ralf Floca, Markus Möhlenbruch, Wolfgang Wick, Martin Bendszus and Alexander Radbruch

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2016 16:50

    Published on:

  2. Content type: Research article

    The predictive ability of National Institute of Neurological Disease and Stroke-Canadian Stroke Network (NINDS-CSN) 5-minute protocol and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) administered sub-acutely and at th...

    Authors: YanHong Dong, Jing Xu, Bernard Poon-Lap Chan, Raymond Chee Seong Seet, Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian, Hock Luen Teoh, Vijay Kumar Sharma and Christopher Li-Hsian Chen

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2016 16:46

    Published on:

  3. Content type: Study protocol

    Sitting ability and function are commonly impaired after stroke. Balance training has been shown to be helpful, but abundant repetitions are required for optimal recovery and patients must be motivated to perf...

    Authors: L. Sheehy, A. Taillon-Hobson, H. Sveistrup, M. Bilodeau, D. Fergusson, D. Levac and H. Finestone

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2016 16:42

    Published on:

  4. Content type: Case report

    Internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion mainly manifests as ischemia of the anterior circulation. There are very few reports of ICA occlusion manifesting as only ischemia of the posterior circulation related t...

    Authors: Ryo Hiramatsu, Hiroyuki Ohnishi, Shinji Kawabata, Shigeru Miyachi and Toshihiko Kuroiwa

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2016 16:41

    Published on:

  5. Content type: Research article

    Collateral pathways are important in maintaining adequate cerebral blood flow in patients with carotid stenosis. We aimed to evaluate the hemodynamic patterns in relation to carotid stenosis in acute stroke pa...

    Authors: Hui Fang, Bo Song, Bo Cheng, Ka Sing Wong, Yu Ming Xu, Stella Sin Yee Ho and Xiang Yan Chen

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2016 16:39

    Published on:

  6. Content type: Research article

    Total cholesterol is a well-documented risk factor for coronary disease. Previous studies have shown that high total cholesterol level is associated with better stroke outcomes, but the association of low tota...

    Authors: Wenjuan Zhao, Zhongping An, Yan Hong, Guanen Zhou, Jingjing Guo, Yongli Zhang, Yuanju Yang, Xianjia Ning and Jinghua Wang

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2016 16:36

    Published on:

  7. Content type: Research article

    To investigate if initial blood pressure (BP) on admission is associated with stroke severity and predictive of admission costs and one-year-outcome in acute ischemic (IS) and hemorrhagic stroke (HS).

    Authors: Chi-Hung Liu, Yi-Chia Wei, Jr-Rung Lin, Chien-Hung Chang, Ting-Yu Chang, Kuo-Lun Huang, Yeu-Jhy Chang, Shan-Jin Ryu, Leng-Chieh Lin and Tsong-Hai Lee

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2016 16:27

    Published on:

  8. Content type: Research article

    Convalescent rehabilitation wards assist stroke patients in acquiring skills for activities of daily living to increase the likelihood of home discharge. However, an improvement in activities of daily living d...

    Authors: Shinichiro Maeshima, Sayaka Okamoto, Hideto Okazaki, Shiho Mizuno, Naoki Asano, Hirofumi Maeda, Mitsuko Masaki, Hiroshi Matsuo, Tetsuya Tsunoda and Shigeru Sonoda

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2016 16:16

    Published on:

  9. Content type: Research article

    The relationship between the apolipoprotein E (APOE) polymorphism and intracranial aneurysms has previously only been studied in Russia and Japan but not in Chinese populations. The purpose of this study was to i...

    Authors: Hao Liu, Ping Mao, Changhou Xie, Wanfu Xie, Maode Wang and Haitao Jiang

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2016 16:14

    Published on:

  10. Content type: Case report

    Moyamoya syndrome is a vasculopathy characterised by progressive occlusion of the cerebral arteries resulting in the development of abnormal collateral circulation. To diagnose this syndrome, imaging of the ce...

    Authors: Tobias Braun, Martin Juenemann, Dursun Gündüz, Stefanie Schmetsdorf, Florian Roessler, Astrid Grams, Carolin Gramsch and Christian Tanislav

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2015 15:263

    Published on:

  11. Content type: Research article

    The etiologic determinants of stroke in young adults remain a diagnostic challenge in up to one-fourth of cases. Increasing evidences led to consider Fabry’s disease (FD) as a possible cause to check up. We ai...

    Authors: Laura Fancellu, Walter Borsini, Ilaria Romani, Angelo Pirisi, Giovanni Andrea Deiana, Elia Sechi, Pietro Emiliano Doneddu, Anna Laura Rassu, Rita Demurtas, Anna Scarabotto, Pamela Cassini, Eloisa Arbustini and GianPietro Sechi

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2015 15:256

    Published on:

  12. Content type: Research article

    Stroke recurrence and disability in patients with a minor stroke is one of the most depressing medical situations. In this study, we aimed to identify which factors were associated with adverse outcomes of a m...

    Authors: Lingyun Wu, Anxin Wang, Xianwei Wang, Xingquan Zhao, Chunxue Wang, Liping Liu, Huaguang Zheng, Yongjun Wang, Yibin Cao and Yilong Wang

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2015 15:253

    Published on:

  13. Content type: Case report

    Non-invasive brain stimulation-related seizures or syncopal events are rare. However, we report on a syncopal event in a healthy female during a transcranial magnetic stimulation single-pulse testing session.

    Authors: Bernadette T. Gillick, Tonya Rich, Mo Chen and Gregg D. Meekins

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2015 15:248

    Published on:

  14. Content type: Study protocol

    Intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) with (recombinant) tissue plasminogen activator is an effective treatment in acute ischemic stroke. However, IVT is contraindicated when blood pressure is above 185/110 mmHg, bec...

    Authors: T. P. Zonneveld, A. Algra, D. W. J. Dippel, L. J. Kappelle, R. J. van Oostenbrugge, Y. B. W. E. M. Roos, M. J. Wermer, H. B. van der Worp, P. J. Nederkoorn and N. D. Kruyt

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2015 15:241

    Published on:

  15. Content type: Research article

    An Early Supported Discharge (ESD) and rehabilitation from a coordinated team in the home environment is recommended in several high-income countries for patients with mild to moderate symptoms after stroke. R...

    Authors: Åsa Nordin, Katharina S. Sunnerhagen and Åsa B. Axelsson

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2015 15:235

    Published on:

  16. Content type: Case report

    Studies on the role of cold agglutinins in the pathogenesis of acute ischemic stroke are scarce. We present a case of an elderly man with acute cerebral infarction probably due to cold agglutinin disease.

    Authors: Haiqiang Jin, Wei Sun, Yongan Sun, Yining Huang and Yunchuang Sun

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2015 15:222

    Published on:

  17. Content type: Research article

    Cerebral microvascular abnormality is frequently associated with lacunar and subcortical ischemic lesions. We performed acute and follow-up CT perfusion scans over the first 3 months after ischemic stroke to i...

    Authors: Jun Yang, Christopher d’Esterre, Stefano Ceruti, Gloria Roversi, Andrea Saletti, Enrico Fainardi and Ting Yim Lee

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2015 15:214

    Published on:

  18. Content type: Study protocol

    An effective diagnostic work-up in hospitalized patients with acute ischemic stroke is vital to optimize secondary stroke prevention. The HEart and BRain interfaces in Acute ischemic Stroke (HEBRAS) study aims to...

    Authors: Karl Georg Haeusler, Ulrike Grittner, Jochen B. Fiebach, Matthias Endres, Thomas Krause and Christian H. Nolte

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2015 15:213

    Published on:

  19. Content type: Study protocol

    Several systematic reviews have shown that additional exercise therapy has a positive effect on functional outcome after stroke. However, there is an urgent need for resource-efficient methods to augment rehab...

    Authors: Judith Vloothuis, Marijn Mulder, Rinske H M Nijland, Manin Konijnenbelt, Henry Mulder, Cees M P M Hertogh, Maurits van Tulder, Gert Kwakkel and Erwin van Wegen

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2015 15:193

    Published on:

  20. Content type: Research article

    Pure dysarthria (PD) and dysarthria-facial paresis syndrome (DFP) mainly result from lenticulostriate artery territory infarction. PD and DFP are rare clinical entities, often grouped without distinction. The ...

    Authors: Koji Tanaka, Takeshi Yamada, Takako Torii, Takeo Yoshimura, Kei-ichiro Takase, Osamu Togao, Yoshifumi Wakata, Akio Hiwatashi, Naoki Nakashima, Jun-ichi Kira and Hiroyuki Murai

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2015 15:184

    Published on:

  21. Content type: Research article

    Fatigue is a common complaint after stroke. Reasons for higher prevalence are still unclear. This study aimed to determine if fatigue prevalence in stroke patients is different to that of age and gender matche...

    Authors: Thorlene Egerton, Anne Hokstad, Torunn Askim, Julie Bernhardt and Bent Indredavik

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2015 15:181

    Published on:

  22. Content type: Research article

    Assessing the level of public stroke awareness is a prerequisite for development of community educational campaigns aimed at reducing prehospital delay of stroke patients. The Stroke Action Test (STAT) is a va...

    Authors: Licia Denti, Barbara Marcomini, Silvia Riva, Peter J. Schulz and Caterina Caminiti

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2015 15:76

    Published on:

  23. Content type: Research article

    Data estimating the recurrence and risk of death are lacking in low and middle income countries, where two thirds of the stroke burden occurs. Previously we had shown that the incidence and mortality have been...

    Authors: Norberto Luiz Cabral, Milena Muller, Selma Cristina Franco, Alexandre Longo, Carla Moro, Vivian Nagel, Rafaela B Liberato, Adriana C Garcia, Vanessa G Venancio and Anderson RR Gonçalves

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2015 15:70

    Published on:

  24. Content type: Research article

    Large intracranial occlusive vascular disease is a major contributor to the incidence of stroke worldwide, especially when it involves the middle cerebral artery (MCA). The data on the prognosis of symptomatic...

    Authors: Lili Tian, Xuanye Yue, Gangming Xi, Youmeng Wang, Zongyou Li, Ying Zhou and Xiaobing Fan

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2015 15:68

    Published on:

  25. Content type: Research article

    The relationship between central obesity and stroke is inconsistent in diabetic and non-diabetic populations. This indicates an interaction between diabetes and central obesity on stroke risk. The present stud...

    Authors: Jennifer Olofindayo, Hao Peng, Yan Liu, Hongmei Li, Mingzhi Zhang, Aili Wang and Yonghong Zhang

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2015 15:65

    Published on:

  26. Content type: Case report

    The treatment option for acute ischaemic stroke depends on the duration of symptoms, the dynamics of neurological condition changes, the aetiology, type of stroke, as well as the results of angiographic and ne...

    Authors: Anetta Lasek-Bal, Tomasz Urbanek, Damian Ziaja, Aldona Warsz-Wianecka, Przemysław Puz and Krzysztof Ziaja

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2015 15:62

    Published on:

  27. Content type: Study protocol

    A visual field defect (VFD) is a common consequence of stroke with a detrimental effect upon the survivors’ functional ability and quality of life. The identification of effective treatments for VFD is a key p...

    Authors: Tobias Loetscher, Celia Chen, Sophie Wignall, Andreas Bulling, Sabrina Hoppe, Owen Churches, Nicole A Thomas, Michael E R Nicholls and Andrew Lee

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2015 15:64

    Published on:

  28. Content type: Research article

    Both apathy and suicide are common in poststroke patients. However, the association between poststroke apathy and suicide-related ideation (SI) in Chinese stroke patients is not clear and poorly understood. Th...

    Authors: Wai Kwong Tang, Lara Caeiro, Chieh Grace Lau, Huajun Liang, Vincent Mok, Gabor S Ungvari and Ka Sing Wong

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2015 15:60

    Published on:

  29. Content type: Research article

    In the context of an epidemiologic transition in South Africa, in which cardiovascular disease is increasing, little is known about the stroke burden, particularly morbidity in rural populations. Risk factors ...

    Authors: Mandy Maredza, Melanie Y Bertram and Stephen M Tollman

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2015 15:54

    Published on:

  30. Content type: Research article

    Impaired dominant hand function in stroke patients is a common clinical problem. Functional improvement after focal spasticity therapy is well documented but knowledge about central correlates is sparse. Brain...

    Authors: Ulla Bergfeldt, Tomas Jonsson, Lennart Bergfeldt and Per Julin

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2015 15:52

    Published on:

  31. Content type: Case report

    We describe a case of a very unusual complication following a coiling procedure in which the patient developed transient unique cerebral and cerebellar lesions. Lesions were examined not only by magnetic reson...

    Authors: Kentaro Deguchi, Yuko Kawahara, Shoko Deguchi, Nobutoshi Morimoto, Tomoko Kurata, Yoshio Ikeda, Tomotsugu Ichikawa, Koji Tokunaga, Nobuyuki Kawai, Kenji Sugiu and Koji Abe

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2015 15:49

    Published on:

  32. Content type: Study protocol

    Development of a long-term stroke care plan requires serial assessment of long-term patient function and consideration of caregiver mood. However, to date, few comprehensive cohort studies have included both s...

    Authors: Won Hyuk Chang, Min Kyun Sohn, Jongmin Lee, Deog Young Kim, Sam-Gyu Lee, Yong-Il Shin, Gyung-Jae Oh, Yang-Soo Lee, Min Cheol Joo, Eun Young Han and Yun-Hee Kim

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2015 15:42

    Published on:

  33. Content type: Research article

    Although hyperlipidemia is known as a risk factor of stroke, its effects on the outcome are unknown. The aim of the study is to clarify the influences of hyperlipidemia on the stroke early outcome by estimatin...

    Authors: Kazuo Shigematsu, Yoshiyuki Watanabe and Hiromi Nakano

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2015 15:44

    Published on:

  34. Content type: Research article

    Stroke is the second largest cause of death worldwide. Hypercoagulability is a key feature in ischaemic stroke due to the development of an abnormally dense clot structure but techniques assessing the mechanic...

    Authors: Sophia N Stanford, Ahmed Sabra, Lindsay D’Silva, Matthew Lawrence, Roger HK Morris, Sharon Storton, Martyn Rowan Brown, Vanessa Evans, Karl Hawkins, Phylip Rhodri Williams, Simon J Davidson, Mushtaq Wani, John F Potter and Phillip A Evans

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2015 15:35

    Published on:

  35. Content type: Study protocol

    Transient ischemic attacks (TIA) are characterized by acute onset focal neurological symptoms and complete recovery within 24 hours. Attacks of nonfocal symptoms not fulfilling the criteria for TIA but lacking...

    Authors: Frank G van Rooij, Anil M Tuladhar, Roy PC Kessels, Sarah E Vermeer, Bozena M Góraj, Peter J Koudstaal, David G Norris, Frank-Erik de Leeuw and Ewoud J van Dijk

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2015 15:36

    Published on:

  36. Content type: Research article

    Cognitive impairment commonly occurs in the acute phase post-stroke, but may persist with over half of all stroke survivors experiencing some form of long-term cognitive deficit. Recent evidence suggests that ...

    Authors: Lisa Mellon, Linda Brewer, Patricia Hall, Frances Horgan, David Williams and Anne Hickey

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2015 15:31

    Published on:

  37. Content type: Research article

    Family history (FH) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, especially coronary artery disease (CAD). The impact on risk of stroke is less clear. This study investigated young and middle-aged ischemic str...

    Authors: Halvor Øygarden, Annette Fromm, Kristin Modalsli Sand, Geir Egil Eide, Lars Thomassen, Halvor Naess and Ulrike Waje-Andreassen

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2015 15:30

    Published on:

  38. Content type: Research article

    About 20% of patients with a first ischaemic stroke will experience a new vascular event within the first year. The atherosclerotic burden, an indicator of the extension of atherosclerosis in a patient, has be...

    Authors: Joaquín Serena, Tomás Segura, Jaume Roquer, María García-Gil and José Castillo

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2015 15:28

    Published on:

  39. Content type: Research article

    The prognostic impact of preadmission use of calcium channel blockers (CCBs) and beta blockers (BBs) on stroke mortality remains unclear. We aimed to examine whether preadmission use of CCBs or BBs was associa...

    Authors: Jens Sundbøll, Morten Schmidt, Erzsébet Horváth-Puhó, Christian F Christiansen, Lars Pedersen, Hans Erik Bøtker and Henrik T Sørensen

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2015 15:24

    Published on:

  40. Content type: Research article

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by a ruptured intracranial aneurysm (RIA) is a devastating condition with significant morbidity and mortality. Despite the fact that RIAs can be prevented by microsurgical clippi...

    Authors: Jing Xu, Feiqiang Ma, Wei Yan, Sen Qiao, Shengquan Xu, Yi Li, Jianhong Luo, Jianmin Zhang and Jinghua Jin

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2015 15:23

    Published on:

  41. Content type: Research article

    The NINDS-Canadian Stroke Network (NINDS-CSN) recommended a neuropsychological battery of three protocols to diagnose vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), however, due to culture and language differences, the ...

    Authors: Xiangliang Chen, Adrian Wong, Ruidong Ye, Lulu Xiao, Zhaojun Wang, Ying Lin, Fang Yang, Hua Li, Ting Feng, Lihui Duan, Yunfei Han, Qiliang Dai, Juan Du, Gelin Xu, Vincent Mok, Yunyun Xiong…

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2015 15:20

    Published on:

  42. Content type: Research article

    Improvements in stroke management have led to increases in the numbers of stroke survivors over the last decade and there has been a corresponding increase of hospital readmissions after an initial stroke hosp...

    Authors: James Lewsey, Osaretin Ebueku, Pardeep S Jhund, Michelle Gillies, Jim WT Chalmers, Adam Redpath, Andrew Briggs, Matthew Walters, Peter Langhorne, Simon Capewell, John JV McMurray and Kate MacIntyre

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2015 15:3

    Published on:

  43. Content type: Research article

    Stroke causes lasting disability and the burden of stroke is expected to increase substantially during the next decades. Optimal rehabilitation is therefore mandatory. Early supported discharge (ESD) has previ...

    Authors: Håkon Hofstad, Bente Elisabeth Bassøe Gjelsvik, Halvor Næss, Geir Egil Eide and Jan Sture Skouen

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:239

    Published on:

  44. Content type: Research article

    While previous meta-analysis have investigated the efficacy of cilostazol in the secondary prevention of ischemic stroke, they were criticized for their methodology, which confused the acute and chronic phases...

    Authors: LiGen Shi, JiaLi Pu, Liang Xu, Jay Malaguit, Jianmin Zhang and Sheng Chen

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:251

    Published on: