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Dementias

Section edited by Marwan Sabbagh

This section focuses on neurodegeneration. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s Disease, frontotemporal dementias, Lewy body dementia, vascular dementia, mild cognitive impairment and basic aspects of neurodegenerative diseases and prion diseases.

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  1. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia. International multilateral cost-of-illness (COI) studies have revealed that the cost of treating this disease is huge, which places a significant b...

    Authors: Fangyu Li, Shuoqi Chen, Cuibai Wei and Jianping Jia

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2017 17:15

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Recent research suggests that several pathogenetic factors, including aging, genetics, inflammation, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and infectious diseases, influence cognitive decline (CD) risk. However, no definiti...

    Authors: Teruhide Koyama, Nagato Kuriyama, Etsuko Ozaki, Daisuke Matsui, Isao Watanabe, Fumitaro Miyatani, Masaki Kondo, Aiko Tamura, Takashi Kasai, Yoichi Ohshima, Tomokatsu Yoshida, Takahiko Tokuda, Ikuko Mizuta, Shigeto Mizuno, Kei Yamada, Kazuo Takeda…

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2016 16:253

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Heterogeneous disease trajectories of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia are frequently encountered in clinical practice, but there is still insufficient knowledge to understand the reasons and mecha...

    Authors: Weiqi Liao, Renske E. G. Hamel, Marcel G. M. Olde Rikkert, Saskia M. Oosterveld, Pauline Aalten, Frans R. J. Verhey, Philip Scheltens, Nicole Sistermans, Yolande A. L. Pijnenburg, Wiesje M. van der Flier, Inez H. G. B. Ramakers and René J. F. Melis

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2016 16:242

    Content type: Database

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  4. Creutzfeldt - Jakob disease (CJD) is a rapidly progressive and fatal neurodegenerative prion disease. MRI findings are included in diagnostic criteria for probable CJD, giving a sensitivity and specificity mor...

    Authors: Edgaras Dirzius, Renata Balnyte, Vesta Steibliene, Rymante Gleizniene, Inga Gudinaviciene, Andrius Radziunas and Kestutis Petrikonis

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2016 16:234

    Content type: Case report

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  5. The smell sense reduction was considered to represent the potentially warning of early stage of neurodegenerative disorders. The Shanghai Aging Study provided us a unique opportunity to explore the association...

    Authors: Xiaoniu Liang, Ding Ding, Qianhua Zhao, Qihao Guo, Jianfeng Luo and Zhen Hong

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2016 16:199

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Caregivers of care-recipients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia experience high caregiver burden; however, the psychiatric burden of caregivers of care-recipients with subjective cognitive decli...

    Authors: Xiaoniu Liang, Qihao Guo, Jianfeng Luo, Fang Li, Ding Ding, Qianhua Zhao and Zhen Hong

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2016 16:191

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Older adults with dementia are at an increased risk of falls, however, little is known about risk factors for recurrent injurious falls (a subsequent fall after the first fall has occurred) among this group. T...

    Authors: Lynn B. Meuleners, Michelle L. Fraser, Max K. Bulsara, Kyle Chow and Jonathon Q. Ng

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2016 16:188

    Content type: Research article

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  8. It is widely accepted that neuroinflammatory processes play an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and high levels of cytokines and chemokines are detected around Aβ plaques.

    Authors: Raphael Hesse, Anke Wahler, Pauline Gummert, Stefanie Kirschmer, Markus Otto, Hayrettin Tumani, Jan Lewerenz, Cathrin Schnack and Christine A. F. von Arnim

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2016 16:185

    Content type: Research article

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  9. α-Synuclein has been proposed as a potential biomarker for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). However, results from α-synuclein measurements in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) ha...

    Authors: Guro Berge, Sigrid B. Sando, Grethe Albrektsen, Camilla Lauridsen, Ina Møller, Gøril R. Grøntvedt, Geir Bråthen and Linda R. White

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2016 16:180

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Fahr’s disease is rare a neurodegenerative idiopathic condition characterized by symmetric and bilateral calcifications of basal ganglia, usually associated with progressive neuropsychiatric dysfunctions and m...

    Authors: Elisabetta Savino, Cecilia Soavi, Eleonora Capatti, Massimo Borrelli, Giovanni B. Vigna, Angelina Passaro and Giovanni Zuliani

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2016 16:165

    Content type: Case report

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  11. Authors: Flora M. Hammond, David N. Alexander, Andrew J. Cutler, Stephen D’Amico, Rachelle S. Doody, William Sauve, Richard D. Zorowitz, Charles S. Davis, Paul Shin, Fred Ledon, Charles Yonan, Andrea E. Formella and Joao Siffert

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2016 16:160

    Content type: Erratum

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    The original article was published in BMC Neurology 2016 16:89

  12. The survival time in nursing homes (NHs) in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) might be affected by sociodemographic/clinical characteristics, rate of disease progression, and use of specific medications and community-b...

    Authors: Carina Wattmo, Elisabet Londos and Lennart Minthon

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2016 16:156

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. The possibility of disease-modifying strategies has evoked a need for early and accurate diagnosis. To improve the accuracy of the ...

    Authors: Sonja Schönecker, Matthias Brendel, Marion Huber, Christian Vollmar, Hans-Juergen Huppertz, Stefan Teipel, Nobuyuki Okamura, Johannes Levin, Axel Rominger and Adrian Danek

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2016 16:131

    Content type: Case report

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  14. Few patients are reported with dementia with Lewy bodies before fifty years-old, which may partly reflect the difficulty of accurate diagnosis in young population. We report the case of a 44-year-old male with...

    Authors: Laure Saint-Aubert, Jérémie Pariente, Herve Dumas, Pierre Payoux, Jean-Philippe Brandel, Michèle Puel, Anne Vital, Eric Guedj, Suzanne Lesage, Katell Peoc’h, Christine Brefel Courbon and Fabienne Ory Magne

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2016 16:122

    Content type: Case report

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  15. Improving cardiovascular health possibly decreases the risk of dementia. Primary care practices offer a suitable setting for monitoring and controlling cardiovascular risk factors in the older population. The ...

    Authors: Johannes Baltasar Hessler, Karl-Heinz Ander, Monika Brönner, Thorleif Etgen, Hans Förstl, Holger Poppert, Dirk Sander and Horst Bickel

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2016 16:116

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Disease-modification clinical trials in neurodegenerative disorders have struggled to separate symptomatic effects of putative agents from disease-modification. In response, a variety of clinical trial designs...

    Authors: David J. M. McGhee, Craig W. Ritchie, John P. Zajicek and Carl E. Counsell

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2016 16:92

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Phase 3 trials supporting dextromethorphan/quinidine (DM/Q) use as a treatment for pseudobulbar affect (PBA) were conducted in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or multiple sclerosis (MS). The ...

    Authors: Flora M. Hammond, David N. Alexander, Andrew J. Cutler, Stephen D’Amico, Rachelle S. Doody, William Sauve, Richard D. Zorowitz, Charles S. Davis, Paul Shin, Fred Ledon, Charles Yonan, Andrea E. Formella and Joao Siffert

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2016 16:89

    Content type: Research article

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Neurology 2016 16:160

  18. Executive functions (EF) in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), classically related to the prefrontal cortex, have been forgotten in mild stages, given more importance to temporal lobe associated disorders, such as memo...

    Authors: E. Blanco Martín, I. Ugarriza Serrano, X. Elcoroaristizabal Martín, L. Galdos Alcelay, A. Molano Salazar, R. Bereincua Gandarias, S. Inglés Borda, J. M. Uterga Valiente, M. B. Indakoetxea Juanbeltz, J. Moraza Lopez, M. Barandiarán Amillano and M. Fernández-Martínez

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2016 16:88

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Three main genes are described as causative genes for early-onset Alzheimer dementia (EOAD): APP, PSEN1 and PSEN2. We describe a woman with EOAD had a novel PSEN1 mutation.

    Authors: Seong Soo A. An, Eva Bagyinszky, Hye Ryoun Kim, Ju-Won Seok, Hae-Won Shin, SeunOh Bae, SangYun Kim and Young Chul Youn

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2016 16:71

    Content type: Case report

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  20. The ε4 allele of the Apolipoprotein E gene (APOE-ε4) is a potent genetic risk factor for sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is an intermediate state between normal cog...

    Authors: Guan-Qun Chen, Can Sheng, Yu-Xia Li, Yang Yu, Xiao-Ni Wang, Yu Sun, Hong-Yan Li, Xuan-Yu Li, Yun-Yan Xie and Ying Han

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2016 16:64

    Content type: Study protocol

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  21. Considerable variability exists in international prevalence and incidence estimates of dementia. The accuracy of estimates of dementia in the oldest-old and the controversial question of whether dementia incid...

    Authors: Henry Brodaty, Claudia Woolf, Stacy Andersen, Nir Barzilai, Carol Brayne, Karen Siu-Lan Cheung, Maria M. Corrada, John D. Crawford, Catriona Daly, Yasuyuki Gondo, Bo Hagberg, Nobuyoshi Hirose, Henne Holstege, Claudia Kawas, Jeffrey Kaye, Nicole A. Kochan…

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2016 16:52

    Content type: Study protocol

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  22. The production of inflammatory cytokines resulting from amyloid β (Aβ) is associated with the initiation of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Atorvastatin (ATV) has been reported to improve AD, however, it is unclear ...

    Authors: Liandong Zhao, Tingting Chen, Chonghui Wang, Guoxi Li, Wenhui Zhi, Jun Yin, Qi Wan and Ling Chen

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2016 16:18

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Chronic HIV infection commonly affects both cognition and mental health, even with excellent systemic viral control. The causes of compromised brain health are likely to be a multi-factorial combination of HIV...

    Authors: Nancy E. Mayo, Marie-Josée Brouillette and Lesley K. Fellows

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2016 16:8

    Content type: Study protocol

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  24. Deep brain stimulation has recently been considered a potential therapy in improving memory function. It has been shown that a change of neurotransmitters has an effect on memory function. However, much about ...

    Authors: Ji Eun Lee, Da Un Jeong, Jihyeon Lee, Won Seok Chang and Jin Woo Chang

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2016 16:6

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Cobalamin (Cbl) deficiency has been associated with various neuropsychiatric symptoms of different severities. While some studies dedicated in structural neuroimaging credibly address negative impact of low Cb...

    Authors: Min-Chien Tu, Chung-Ping Lo, Ching-Yuan Chen and Ching-Feng Huang

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2015 15:251

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) refers to the deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides in the wall of brain vasculature, commonly involving capillaries and arterioles. Also being considered a part of CAA is the...

    Authors: Zhi-Qin Xue, Zheng-Wen He, Jian-Jun Yu, Yan Cai, Wen-Ying Qiu, Aihua Pan, Wei-Ping Gai, Huaibin Cai, Xue-Gang Luo, Chao Ma and Xiao-Xin Yan

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2015 15:71

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Cholinesterase inhibitors are used to treat the symptoms of dementia and can theoretically cause bradycardia. Previous studies suggest that patients taking these medications have an increased risk of undergoin...

    Authors: Allen R Huang, Calum J Redpath and Carl van Walraven

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2015 15:66

    Content type: Research article

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  28. One of the usual problems psychologists and clinicians face in clinical practice is differential diagnostics of Alzheimer’s disease and depression. It has been reported that the ACE and ACE-R could discriminat...

    Authors: Augustinas Rotomskis, Ramunė Margevičiūtė, Arūnas Germanavičius, Gintaras Kaubrys, Valmantas Budrys and Albinas Bagdonas

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2015 15:57

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers Aβ1-42, t-tau and p-tau have a characteristic pattern in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Their roles in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) remains unclear.

    Authors: Lucette A Cysique, Timothy Hewitt, Juliana Croitoru-Lamoury, Kevin Taddei, Ralph N Martins, Constance SN Chew, Nicholas NWS Davies, Patricia Price and Bruce J Brew

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2015 15:51

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) has been shown to promote both neurotoxic and neuroprotective effects. Similarly, other routinely used nonspecific markers of neuronal damage can be found in cerebrospin...

    Authors: Zdenek Rohan, Magdalena Smetakova, Jaromir Kukal, Robert Rusina and Radoslav Matej

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2015 15:50

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Heritability of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is estimated at 74% and genetic contributors have been widely sought. The ε4 allele of apolipoprotein E (APOE) remains the strongest common risk factor for AD, with numero...

    Authors: Jennifer S Yokoyama, Luke W Bonham, Renee L Sears, Eric Klein, Anna Karydas, Joel H Kramer, Bruce L Miller and Giovanni Coppola

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2015 15:47

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Because our previous study showed disparate voxel based morphometry (VBM) results between SPM and FSL softwares in the brain of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients with frontotemporal dementia (ALS-FTD), we...

    Authors: Venkateswaran Rajagopalan and Erik P Pioro

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2015 15:32

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease (AD), with morphological and functional abnormalities limiting the electron transport chain and ATP productio...

    Authors: Aaron N Long, Katrina Owens, Anna E Schlappal, Tibor Kristian, Paul S Fishman and Rosemary A Schuh

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2015 15:19

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and patients often have visual disorders. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is characterized by a memory deficit when compared with those of a similar...

    Authors: Dachuan Liu, Lina Zhang, Zhen Li, Xuxiang Zhang, Yue Wu, Huiqing Yang, Baoquan Min, Xinqing Zhang, Daqing Ma and Yan Lu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2015 15:14

    Content type: Research article

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  35. The Parelsnoer Institute is a collaboration between 8 Dutch University Medical Centers in which clinical data and biomaterials from patients suffering from chronic diseases (so called “Pearls”) are collected acco...

    Authors: Pauline Aalten, Inez HGB Ramakers, Geert Jan Biessels, Peter Paul de Deyn, Huiberdina L Koek, Marcel GM OldeRikkert, Ania M Oleksik, Edo Richard, Lieke L Smits, John C van Swieten, Laura K Teune, Aad van der Lugt, Frederik Barkhof, Charlotte E Teunissen, Nico Rozendaal, Frans RJ Verhey…

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:254

    Content type: Study protocol

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  36. The American Stroke Association/American Heart Association recommended the criteria for diagnosis of vascular cognitive impairment and memory impairment (MI) is a feature in the classification of vascular mild...

    Authors: Soo-Jin Cho, Kyung-Ho Yu, Mi Sun Oh, San Jung, Ju-Hun Lee, Im-Seok Koh, Hee-Joon Bae, Yeonwook Kang and Byung-Chul Lee

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:244

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Cholinesterase inhibitors can delay the progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Several clinical trials of the drug in moderate to severe AD have consistently reported clinically positive effects. A combining ef...

    Authors: Kenichi Meguro, Yoshitaka Ouchi, Kyoko Akanuma, Mitsue Meguro and Mari Kasai

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:243

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) may present with psychiatric symptoms, usually together with neurological ones and in cases with a family history of dementia. We describe the case of an FTD behavioural variant w...

    Authors: Carla Gramaglia, Roberto Cantello, Emanuela Terazzi, Miryam Carecchio, Sandra D’Alfonso, Nunzia Chieppa, Francesca Ressico, Maria Cristina Rizza and Patrizia Zeppegno

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:228

    Content type: Case report

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  39. Differential diagnosis of severe progressive dementia includes a wide spectrum of inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. Particularly challenging is the differentiation of potentially treatable autoimmun...

    Authors: Frédéric Zuhorn, Almut Hübenthal, Andreas Rogalewski, Müjgan Dogan Onugoren, Markus Glatzel, Christian G Bien and Wolf-Rüdiger Schäbitz

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:227

    Content type: Case report

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  40. Recent studies have revealed an inverse epidemiological correlation between Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and cancer − patients with AD show a reduced risk of cancer, while cancer survivors are less likely to devel...

    Authors: Jian-Ming Li, Chao Liu, Xia Hu, Yan Cai, Chao Ma, Xue-Gang Luo and Xiao-Xin Yan

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:211

    Content type: Debate

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  41. As greater numbers of us are living longer, it is increasingly important to understand how we can age healthily. Although old age is often stereotyped as a time of declining mental abilities and inflexibility,...

    Authors: Meredith A Shafto, Lorraine K Tyler, Marie Dixon, Jason R Taylor, James B Rowe, Rhodri Cusack, Andrew J Calder, William D Marslen-Wilson, John Duncan, Tim Dalgleish, Richard N Henson, Carol Brayne and Fiona E Matthews

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:204

    Content type: Study protocol

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  42. In the absence of a gold standard, a panel of experts can be invited to assign a reference diagnosis for use in research. Available literature offers limited guidance on assembling and working with an expert p...

    Authors: Ron L H Handels, Claire A G Wolfs, Pauline Aalten, Patrick M M Bossuyt, Manuela A Joore, Albert F G Leentjens, Johan L Severens and Frans R J Verhey

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:190

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Dementia includes a group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by progressive loss of cognitive function and a decrease in the ability to perform activities of daily living. Systematic reviews of diagn...

    Authors: Ingrid Arevalo-Rodriguez, Omar Segura, Ivan Solà, Xavier Bonfill, Erick Sanchez and Pablo Alonso-Coello

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:183

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Dementia has been associated with an increased risk of hip fracture. However, little research has been conducted on the impact of dementia on wrist or vertebral fracture development. The aim of this study was ...

    Authors: Hao-Kuang Wang, Chao-Ming Hung, Sheng-Hsiang Lin, Yi-Cheng Tai, Kang Lu, Po-Chou Liliang, Chi-Wei Lin, Yi-Che Lee, Pei-Hsuan Fang, Li-Ching Chang and Ying-Chun Li

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:175

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and Hashimoto's encephalopathy often show similar clinical presentation. Among Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease mimics, Hashimoto's encephalopathy is particularly important as it is treatabl...

    Authors: Jae-Won Jang, So Young Park, Young Ho Park, Jung E Kim and SangYun Kim

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:179

    Content type: Case report

    Published on: