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Section edited by Marwan Sabbagh

This section focuses on neurodegeneration. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s Disease, frontotemporal dementias, Lewy body dementia, vascular dementia, mild cognitive impairment and basic aspects of neurodegenerative diseases and prion diseases.

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  1. Content type: Research article

    Executive functions (EF) in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), classically related to the prefrontal cortex, have been forgotten in mild stages, given more importance to temporal lobe associated disorders, such as memo...

    Authors: E. Blanco Martín, I. Ugarriza Serrano, X. Elcoroaristizabal Martín, L. Galdos Alcelay, A. Molano Salazar, R. Bereincua Gandarias, S. Inglés Borda, J. M. Uterga Valiente, M. B. Indakoetxea Juanbeltz, J. Moraza Lopez, M. Barandiarán Amillano and M. Fernández-Martínez

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2016 16:88

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  2. Content type: Case report

    Three main genes are described as causative genes for early-onset Alzheimer dementia (EOAD): APP, PSEN1 and PSEN2. We describe a woman with EOAD had a novel PSEN1 mutation.

    Authors: Seong Soo A. An, Eva Bagyinszky, Hye Ryoun Kim, Ju-Won Seok, Hae-Won Shin, SeunOh Bae, SangYun Kim and Young Chul Youn

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2016 16:71

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  3. Content type: Study protocol

    The ε4 allele of the Apolipoprotein E gene (APOE-ε4) is a potent genetic risk factor for sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is an intermediate state between normal cog...

    Authors: Guan-Qun Chen, Can Sheng, Yu-Xia Li, Yang Yu, Xiao-Ni Wang, Yu Sun, Hong-Yan Li, Xuan-Yu Li, Yun-Yan Xie and Ying Han

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2016 16:64

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  4. Content type: Study protocol

    Considerable variability exists in international prevalence and incidence estimates of dementia. The accuracy of estimates of dementia in the oldest-old and the controversial question of whether dementia incid...

    Authors: Henry Brodaty, Claudia Woolf, Stacy Andersen, Nir Barzilai, Carol Brayne, Karen Siu-Lan Cheung, Maria M. Corrada, John D. Crawford, Catriona Daly, Yasuyuki Gondo, Bo Hagberg, Nobuyoshi Hirose, Henne Holstege, Claudia Kawas, Jeffrey Kaye, Nicole A. Kochan…

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2016 16:52

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  5. Content type: Research article

    The production of inflammatory cytokines resulting from amyloid β (Aβ) is associated with the initiation of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Atorvastatin (ATV) has been reported to improve AD, however, it is unclear ...

    Authors: Liandong Zhao, Tingting Chen, Chonghui Wang, Guoxi Li, Wenhui Zhi, Jun Yin, Qi Wan and Ling Chen

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2016 16:18

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  6. Content type: Study protocol

    Chronic HIV infection commonly affects both cognition and mental health, even with excellent systemic viral control. The causes of compromised brain health are likely to be a multi-factorial combination of HIV...

    Authors: Nancy E. Mayo, Marie-Josée Brouillette and Lesley K. Fellows

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2016 16:8

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  7. Content type: Research article

    Deep brain stimulation has recently been considered a potential therapy in improving memory function. It has been shown that a change of neurotransmitters has an effect on memory function. However, much about ...

    Authors: Ji Eun Lee, Da Un Jeong, Jihyeon Lee, Won Seok Chang and Jin Woo Chang

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2016 16:6

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  8. Content type: Research article

    Cobalamin (Cbl) deficiency has been associated with various neuropsychiatric symptoms of different severities. While some studies dedicated in structural neuroimaging credibly address negative impact of low Cb...

    Authors: Min-Chien Tu, Chung-Ping Lo, Ching-Yuan Chen and Ching-Feng Huang

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2015 15:251

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) refers to the deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides in the wall of brain vasculature, commonly involving capillaries and arterioles. Also being considered a part of CAA is the...

    Authors: Zhi-Qin Xue, Zheng-Wen He, Jian-Jun Yu, Yan Cai, Wen-Ying Qiu, Aihua Pan, Wei-Ping Gai, Huaibin Cai, Xue-Gang Luo, Chao Ma and Xiao-Xin Yan

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2015 15:71

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  10. Content type: Research article

    Cholinesterase inhibitors are used to treat the symptoms of dementia and can theoretically cause bradycardia. Previous studies suggest that patients taking these medications have an increased risk of undergoin...

    Authors: Allen R Huang, Calum J Redpath and Carl van Walraven

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2015 15:66

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  11. Content type: Research article

    One of the usual problems psychologists and clinicians face in clinical practice is differential diagnostics of Alzheimer’s disease and depression. It has been reported that the ACE and ACE-R could discriminat...

    Authors: Augustinas Rotomskis, Ramunė Margevičiūtė, Arūnas Germanavičius, Gintaras Kaubrys, Valmantas Budrys and Albinas Bagdonas

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2015 15:57

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers Aβ1-42, t-tau and p-tau have a characteristic pattern in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Their roles in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) remains unclear.

    Authors: Lucette A Cysique, Timothy Hewitt, Juliana Croitoru-Lamoury, Kevin Taddei, Ralph N Martins, Constance SN Chew, Nicholas NWS Davies, Patricia Price and Bruce J Brew

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2015 15:51

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  13. Content type: Research article

    Proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) has been shown to promote both neurotoxic and neuroprotective effects. Similarly, other routinely used nonspecific markers of neuronal damage can be found in cerebrospin...

    Authors: Zdenek Rohan, Magdalena Smetakova, Jaromir Kukal, Robert Rusina and Radoslav Matej

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2015 15:50

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  14. Content type: Research article

    Heritability of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is estimated at 74% and genetic contributors have been widely sought. The ε4 allele of apolipoprotein E (APOE) remains the strongest common risk factor for AD, with numero...

    Authors: Jennifer S Yokoyama, Luke W Bonham, Renee L Sears, Eric Klein, Anna Karydas, Joel H Kramer, Bruce L Miller and Giovanni Coppola

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2015 15:47

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  15. Content type: Research article

    Because our previous study showed disparate voxel based morphometry (VBM) results between SPM and FSL softwares in the brain of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients with frontotemporal dementia (ALS-FTD), we...

    Authors: Venkateswaran Rajagopalan and Erik P Pioro

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2015 15:32

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease (AD), with morphological and functional abnormalities limiting the electron transport chain and ATP productio...

    Authors: Aaron N Long, Katrina Owens, Anna E Schlappal, Tibor Kristian, Paul S Fishman and Rosemary A Schuh

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2015 15:19

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  17. Content type: Research article

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and patients often have visual disorders. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is characterized by a memory deficit when compared with those of a similar...

    Authors: Dachuan Liu, Lina Zhang, Zhen Li, Xuxiang Zhang, Yue Wu, Huiqing Yang, Baoquan Min, Xinqing Zhang, Daqing Ma and Yan Lu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2015 15:14

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  18. Content type: Study protocol

    The Parelsnoer Institute is a collaboration between 8 Dutch University Medical Centers in which clinical data and biomaterials from patients suffering from chronic diseases (so called “Pearls”) are collected acco...

    Authors: Pauline Aalten, Inez HGB Ramakers, Geert Jan Biessels, Peter Paul de Deyn, Huiberdina L Koek, Marcel GM OldeRikkert, Ania M Oleksik, Edo Richard, Lieke L Smits, John C van Swieten, Laura K Teune, Aad van der Lugt, Frederik Barkhof, Charlotte E Teunissen, Nico Rozendaal, Frans RJ Verhey…

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:254

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  19. Content type: Research article

    The American Stroke Association/American Heart Association recommended the criteria for diagnosis of vascular cognitive impairment and memory impairment (MI) is a feature in the classification of vascular mild...

    Authors: Soo-Jin Cho, Kyung-Ho Yu, Mi Sun Oh, San Jung, Ju-Hun Lee, Im-Seok Koh, Hee-Joon Bae, Yeonwook Kang and Byung-Chul Lee

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:244

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  20. Content type: Research article

    Cholinesterase inhibitors can delay the progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Several clinical trials of the drug in moderate to severe AD have consistently reported clinically positive effects. A combining ef...

    Authors: Kenichi Meguro, Yoshitaka Ouchi, Kyoko Akanuma, Mitsue Meguro and Mari Kasai

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:243

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  21. Content type: Case report

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) may present with psychiatric symptoms, usually together with neurological ones and in cases with a family history of dementia. We describe the case of an FTD behavioural variant w...

    Authors: Carla Gramaglia, Roberto Cantello, Emanuela Terazzi, Miryam Carecchio, Sandra D’Alfonso, Nunzia Chieppa, Francesca Ressico, Maria Cristina Rizza and Patrizia Zeppegno

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:228

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  22. Content type: Case report

    Differential diagnosis of severe progressive dementia includes a wide spectrum of inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. Particularly challenging is the differentiation of potentially treatable autoimmun...

    Authors: Frédéric Zuhorn, Almut Hübenthal, Andreas Rogalewski, Müjgan Dogan Onugoren, Markus Glatzel, Christian G Bien and Wolf-Rüdiger Schäbitz

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:227

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  23. Content type: Debate

    Recent studies have revealed an inverse epidemiological correlation between Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and cancer − patients with AD show a reduced risk of cancer, while cancer survivors are less likely to devel...

    Authors: Jian-Ming Li, Chao Liu, Xia Hu, Yan Cai, Chao Ma, Xue-Gang Luo and Xiao-Xin Yan

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:211

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  24. Content type: Study protocol

    As greater numbers of us are living longer, it is increasingly important to understand how we can age healthily. Although old age is often stereotyped as a time of declining mental abilities and inflexibility,...

    Authors: Meredith A Shafto, Lorraine K Tyler, Marie Dixon, Jason R Taylor, James B Rowe, Rhodri Cusack, Andrew J Calder, William D Marslen-Wilson, John Duncan, Tim Dalgleish, Richard N Henson, Carol Brayne and Fiona E Matthews

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:204

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  25. Content type: Research article

    In the absence of a gold standard, a panel of experts can be invited to assign a reference diagnosis for use in research. Available literature offers limited guidance on assembling and working with an expert p...

    Authors: Ron L H Handels, Claire A G Wolfs, Pauline Aalten, Patrick M M Bossuyt, Manuela A Joore, Albert F G Leentjens, Johan L Severens and Frans R J Verhey

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:190

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  26. Content type: Research article

    Dementia includes a group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by progressive loss of cognitive function and a decrease in the ability to perform activities of daily living. Systematic reviews of diagn...

    Authors: Ingrid Arevalo-Rodriguez, Omar Segura, Ivan Solà, Xavier Bonfill, Erick Sanchez and Pablo Alonso-Coello

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:183

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  27. Content type: Research article

    Dementia has been associated with an increased risk of hip fracture. However, little research has been conducted on the impact of dementia on wrist or vertebral fracture development. The aim of this study was ...

    Authors: Hao-Kuang Wang, Chao-Ming Hung, Sheng-Hsiang Lin, Yi-Cheng Tai, Kang Lu, Po-Chou Liliang, Chi-Wei Lin, Yi-Che Lee, Pei-Hsuan Fang, Li-Ching Chang and Ying-Chun Li

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:175

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  28. Content type: Case report

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and Hashimoto's encephalopathy often show similar clinical presentation. Among Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease mimics, Hashimoto's encephalopathy is particularly important as it is treatabl...

    Authors: Jae-Won Jang, So Young Park, Young Ho Park, Jung E Kim and SangYun Kim

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:179

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  29. Content type: Research article

    The objectives of this study were to explore the relationship between olfactory impairment, cognitive measures, and brain structure volumes in healthy elderly individuals, compared to patients with amnestic mi...

    Authors: Grete Kjelvik, Ingvild Saltvedt, Linda R White, Pål Stenumgård, Olav Sletvold, Knut Engedal, Kristina Skåtun, Ann Kristin Lyngvær, Hill Aina Steffenach and Asta K Håberg

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:168

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  30. Content type: Research article

    The Kii peninsula of Japan is one of the foci of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and parkinsonism-dementia complex (ALS/PDC) in the world. The purpose of this study is to clarify the neuropsychological features ...

    Authors: Akihiro Shindo, Yukito Ueda, Shigeki Kuzuhara and Yasumasa Kokubo

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:151

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  31. Content type: Case report

    The diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is often challenging in elderly individuals, not only for its various clinical features, sometimes, but also for its rare changes of periodic synchronous discha...

    Authors: Li Sun, Jie Cao, Feng na Chu, Zan Wang and Yudan Lv

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:112

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  32. Content type: Research article

    Intervention and treatment in Alzheimer’s disease dementia (AD-dementia) can be cost effective but the majority of patients are not diagnosed in a timely manner. Technology is now available that can enable the...

    Authors: Jennifer H Barnett, Lily Lewis, Andrew D Blackwell and Matthew Taylor

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:101

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  33. Content type: Research article

    Cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) such as donepezil have the effect of delaying progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but their effect on life expectancy is unclear. We analyzed the influence of donepezil o...

    Authors: Kenichi Meguro, Mari Kasai, Kyoko Akanuma, Mitsue Meguro, Hiroshi Ishii and Satoshi Yamaguchi

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:83

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  34. Content type: Research article

    Biomarkers based on the underlying pathology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) have the potential to improve diagnosis and understanding of the substrate for cognitive impairment ...

    Authors: Andrew Siderowf, Michael J Pontecorvo, Holly A Shill, Mark A Mintun, Anupa Arora, Abhinay D Joshi, Ming Lu, Charles H Adler, Douglas Galasko, Carolyn Liebsack, Daniel M Skovronsky and Marwan N Sabbagh

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:79

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  35. Content type: Research article

    Gait ability and cognitive function are interrelated during both normal walking (NW) and dual-task walking (DTW), and gait ability is thus adversely affected by cognitive impairment in both situations. However...

    Authors: Takehiko Doi, Hiroyuki Shimada, Hyuma Makizako, Kota Tsutsumimoto, Kazuki Uemura, Yuya Anan and Takao Suzuki

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:67

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  36. Content type: Research article

    We investigated levels of the β-amyloid 1–42 (Aβ42), total tau protein (T-tau) and tau phosphorylated at position threonine 181 (P-tau) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus ...

    Authors: Tae Sung Lim, Jun Young Choi, Sun Ah Park, Young Chul Youn, Hyun Young Lee, Byung Gon Kim, In Soo Joo, Kyoon Huh and So Young Moon

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:66

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  37. Content type: Research article

    The Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF)-related system is implicated in neuroregeneration and cell repair, as well as regulating lifespan. IGF-II, one component of this system, has also been found to affect memor...

    Authors: Joakim Hertze, Katarina Nägga, Lennart Minthon and Oskar Hansson

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:64

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  38. Content type: Study protocol

    The aging of the population has led to the increase of chronic diseases, especially dementia and cardiovascular diseases, and it has become necessary for their relatives to dedicate more time in caregiving.

    Authors: Emiliano Rodriguez-Sánchez, José María Criado-Gutiérrez, Sara Mora-Simón, M Paz Muriel-Diaz, Manuel A Gómez-Marcos, José I Recio-Rodríguez, M Carmen Patino-Alonso, Luis F Valero-Juan, José A Maderuelo-Fernandez and Luis García-Ortiz

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:63

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  39. Content type: Research article

    England has one of the highest rates of hospital death in dementia in Europe. How this has changed over time is unknown. This study aimed to analyse temporal trends in place of death in dementia over a recent ...

    Authors: Katherine E Sleeman, Yuen K Ho, Julia Verne, Wei Gao and Irene J Higginson

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:59

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  40. Content type: Research article

    TTP488, an antagonist at the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End products, was evaluated as a potential treatment for patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A previous report describes decrea...

    Authors: Aaron H Burstein, Imogene Grimes, Douglas R Galasko, Paul S Aisen, Marwan Sabbagh and Adnan MM Mjalli

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:12

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  41. Content type: Study protocol

    A large number of longitudinal studies of population-based ageing cohorts are in progress internationally, but the insights from these studies into the risk and protective factors for cognitive ageing and cond...

    Authors: Perminder S Sachdev, Darren M Lipnicki, Nicole A Kochan, John D Crawford, Kenneth Rockwood, Shifu Xiao, Juan Li, Xia Li, Carol Brayne, Fiona E Matthews, Blossom CM Stephan, Richard B Lipton, Mindy J Katz, Karen Ritchie, Isabelle Carrière, Marie-Laure Ancelin…

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2013 13:165

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  42. Content type: Case report

    Due to the nature of neurodegenerative disorders, patients with primary progressive aphasia develop cognitive impairment other than aphasia as the disorder progresses. The progression of logopenic variant prim...

    Authors: Michitaka Funayama, Yoshitaka Nakagawa, Yoko Yamaya, Fumihiro Yoshino, Masaru Mimura and Motoichiro Kato

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2013 13:158

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  43. Content type: Research article

    To determine whether or not jugular venous reflux (JVR) is associated with structural brain parenchyma changes in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD).

    Authors: Clive Beggs, Chih-Ping Chung, Niels Bergsland, Pei-Ning Wang, Simon Shepherd, Chun-Yu Cheng, Michael G Dwyer, Han-Hwa Hu and Robert Zivadinov

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2013 13:157

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  44. Content type: Review

    Advances in the diagnosis and multi-modality treatment of cancer have increased survival rates for many cancer types leading to an increasing load of long-term sequelae of therapy, including that of cognitive ...

    Authors: Justin Davis, Fiona M Ahlberg, Michael Berk, David M Ashley and Mustafa Khasraw

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2013 13:153

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