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Demyelinating diseases

Section edited by Francesco Patti and Tjalf Ziemssen

This section covers all types of demyelinating diseases. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to, multiple sclerosis, neuroimmunology, systemic lupus, vasculitis, lymphoma, and myelitis.

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  1. Content type: Case report

    Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is one of the most frequent types of autoimmune encephalitis. However, the instigating mechanisms are as yet not fully ascertained. Cardinal clinical man...

    Authors: Huafang Jia, Xiaoli Xie, Faying Qi, Long Wang, Lijuan Wang and Fengyuan Che

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:215

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  2. Content type: Case report

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a rare neurological disorder usually associated with specific medical conditions that cause a disturbance of the CNS homeostasis. It has seldom been repor...

    Authors: Brent G. Oxford, Nicolas K. Khattar, Shawn W. Adams, Alexandra S. Schaber and Brian J. Williams

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:214

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  3. Content type: Research article

    The Treatment Burden Questionnaire (TBQ) is a self-reported measure of the effect of treatment workload on patient wellbeing. We sought to validate the TBQ in Spanish and use it to estimate the burden of treat...

    Authors: María Célica Ysrraelit, Marcela Paula Fiol, Fernando Vazquez Peña, Sandra Vanotti, Sergio Adrián Terrasa, Viet-Thi Tran, Victor M. Montori and Jorge Correale

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:209

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  4. Content type: Case report

    Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare complication of patients treated with fingolimod.

    Authors: Tim Sinnecker, Jeffrie Hadisurya, Tilman Schneider-Hohendorf, Nicholas Schwab, Karsten Wrede, Oliver Gembruch, Ralf Gold, Kerstin Hellwig, Sara Pilgram-Pastor, Ortwin Adams, Philipp Albrecht, Hans-Peter Hartung, Orhan Aktas and Markus Kraemer

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:190

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  5. Content type: Research article

    Interleukin 36 (IL-36) cytokines belong to the IL-1 family and play an important role in some autoimmune diseases. However, the relationship between IL-36 and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) re...

    Authors: Chun-Sheng Yang, Qiu xia Zhang, Yu Deng, Bing jie Zhou, Lin jie Zhang, Li min Li, Yuan Qi, Jing Wang, Li Yang and Fu-Dong Shi

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:185

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients often struggle with treatment decisions, in part due to the increasing number of approved disease modifying therapies, each with different characteristics, and also since physi...

    Authors: Nick Bansback, Judy A. Chiu, Robert Carruthers, Rebecca Metcalfe, Emmanuelle Lapointe, Alice Schabas, Marilyn Lenzen, Larry D. Lynd and Anthony Traboulsee

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:173

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  7. Content type: Research article

    Glatiramer acetate (GA) is one of the first therapies approved for multiple sclerosis (MS). We prospectively included and monitored drug-naïve and pre-treated MS patients who had been prescribed GA for 1 year,...

    Authors: Chiara Zecca, Giulio Disanto, Rosaria Sacco, Gianna C. Riccitelli and Claudio Gobbi

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:159

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  8. Content type: Study protocol

    Fatigue is one of the most common and debilitating symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS). The majority of approaches for managing MS fatigue typically require participation in a structured, time-limited program ...

    Authors: Marcia Finlayson, Nadine Akbar, Karen Turpin and Penny Smyth

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:142

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) and stroke are two common causes of death and disability worldwide. The relationship between these two diseases remains unclear. Effective early preventative measures and treatments are...

    Authors: Ye Hong, Huai Rong Tang, Mengmeng Ma, Ning Chen, Xin Xie and Li He

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:139

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  10. Content type: Debate

    Interferon (IFN) beta drugs have been approved for the treatment of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (RMS) for more than 20 years and are considered to offer a favourable benefit-risk profile. In July 201...

    Authors: Annette Kolb-Mäurer, Cord Sunderkötter, Borries Kukowski and Sven G. Meuth

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:130

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  11. Content type: Study protocol

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurological disease of the central nervous system and is associated with many psychosocial symptoms that are difficult to manage including low mood, anxiety, fatigue and pain, as ...

    Authors: Amy-Lee Sesel, Louise Sharpe, Heidi N. Beadnall, Michael H. Barnett, Marianna Szabo and Sharon L. Naismith

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:129

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  12. Content type: Research article

    No longitudinal, long-term, follow-up studies have explored the association between presence and severity of variations in extracranial venous anatomy, and clinical outcomes in patients with multiple sclerosis...

    Authors: Sirin Gandhi, Karen Marr, Marcello Mancini, Maria Grazia Caprio, Dejan Jakimovski, Avinash Chandra, Jesper Hagemeier, David Hojnacki, Channa Kolb, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman and Robert Zivadinov

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:121

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  13. Content type: Study protocol

    The use of vestibular rehabilitation principles in the management of gaze and postural stability impairments in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) has shown promise in pilot work completed in our lab and in...

    Authors: Brian J. Loyd, Annie Fangman, Daniel S. Peterson, Eduard Gappmaier, Michael C. Schubert, Anne Thackery and Lee Dibble

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:119

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  14. Content type: Research article

    In patients suffering from Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP) disease severity is assessed by Medical Research Counsil (MRC) Scale or Inflammatory Neuropathy Cause and Treatment (INCAT) d...

    Authors: Juliane Klehmet, Svenja Beutner, Sarah Hoffmann, Matthias Dornauer, Friedemann Paul, Ralf Reilmann, Alexander U. Brandt and Andreas Meisel

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:118

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  15. Content type: Research article

    STRIVE is a multicenter, observational, open-label, single-arm study of natalizumab in anti–JC virus (JCV) seronegative patients with early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). The objective of this ...

    Authors: Jai Perumal, Robert J. Fox, Roumen Balabanov, Laura J. Balcer, Steven Galetta, Shavy Makh, Sourav Santra, Christophe Hotermans and Lily Lee

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:116

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  16. Content type: Case report

    Recurrent optic neuritis (ON) was previously thought to be associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD). Meningoencephalitis has recently been suggested to be a c...

    Authors: Xiaonan Zhong, Yanyu Chang, Sha Tan, Jingqi Wang, Xiaobo Sun, Aimin Wu, Lisheng Peng, Alexander Y. Lau, Allan G. Kermode and Wei Qiu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:94

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  17. Content type: Research article

    It was suggested that robot-assisted gait training (RAGT) should not be routinely provided to disabled patients in place of conventional over-ground walking training (CGT). There exist several randomised contr...

    Authors: Martin Sattelmayer, Odile Chevalley, Ruedi Steuri and Roger Hilfiker

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:93

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  18. Content type: Case report

    Area postrema syndrome (APS) is considered to be one of the most specific clinical presentations of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs). In sub-Saharan Africa, NMOSDs and even more so those reveal...

    Authors: Kossivi Apetse, Josué Euberma Diatewa, Jean Joel Dongmo Tajeuna, Yaovi Mawuéna Dansou, Rolph Bakoudissa, Kokouvi Panabalo Waklatsi, Damelan Kombate, Komi Assogba and Agnon A. Koffi Balogou

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:58

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  19. Content type: Study protocol

    Studies have shown positive effects of therapeutic exercise on motor- and cognitive function as well as on psychosocial outcomes in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). A reduction of inflammatory stress thro...

    Authors: Niklas Joisten, Annette Rademacher, Wilhelm Bloch, Alexander Schenk, Max Oberste, Ulrik Dalgas, Dawn Langdon, Daniel Caminada, Mette-Triin Purde, Roman Gonzenbach, Jan Kool, Philipp Zimmer and Jens Bansi

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:37

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  20. Content type: Research article

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a severe inflammatory autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system and often results in paralysis or blindness. Rituximab (RTX) is a mouse–human chimeric monoclonal antibody ...

    Authors: Fulin Gao, Bingyan Chai, Cheng Gu, Ruipeng Wu, Tong Dong, Yuping Yao and Yi Zhang

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:36

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Serum hematological indices such as the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) or monocyte-lymphocyte ratio (MLR) have been used as biomarkers of pathogenic inflammation and prognostication in multiple areas of med...

    Authors: Christopher C. Hemond, Bonnie I. Glanz, Rohit Bakshi, Tanuja Chitnis and Brian C. Healy

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:23

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  22. Content type: Research article

    Delayed-release dimethyl fumarate (DMF) has demonstrated efficacy and a favorable benefit-risk profile in phase 2 and 3 studies that enrolled predominantly white patients with relapsing-remitting multiple scle...

    Authors: Takahiko Saida, Takashi Yamamura, Takayuki Kondo, Jang Yun, Minhua Yang, Jie Li, Lalitha Mahadavan, Bing Zhu and Sarah I. Sheikh

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:5

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  23. Content type: Case report

    Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein immunoglobulin G1 (MOG-IgG1)-associated disease is suggested as a separate disease entity distinct from multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. Noneth...

    Authors: Seok-Jin Choi, Boram Kim, Haeng-Jin Lee, Seong-Joon Kim, Sung-Min Kim and Jung-Joon Sung

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2018 18:216

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  24. Content type: Research article

    The Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) is a useful cognitive test in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), assessing sustained attention and information processing speed. However, the neural underpin...

    Authors: Jordi A. Matias-Guiu, Ana Cortés-Martínez, Paloma Montero, Vanesa Pytel, Teresa Moreno-Ramos, Manuela Jorquera, Miguel Yus, Juan Arrazola and Jorge Matías-Guiu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2018 18:214

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  25. Content type: Research article

    The relationship between cognitive assessment results in multiple sclerosis (MS) and performance in daily activities (DAs) remains unclear. Our study aimed to evaluate the relationship between cognitive functi...

    Authors: G. Fenu, M. Fronza, L. Lorefice, M. Arru, G. Coghe, J. Frau, M. G. Marrosu and E. Cocco

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2018 18:212

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  26. Content type: Research article

    Little is known about whether tolerability and adherence to treatment can be influenced by weather and temperature conditions. The objective of this study was to assess monthly and seasonal adherence to and sa...

    Authors: Spyros N. Deftereos, Evangelos Koutlas, Efrosini Koutsouraki, Athanassios Kyritsis, Panagiotis Papathanassopoulos, Nikolaos Fakas, Vaia Tsimourtou, Nikolaos Vlaikidis, Antonios Tavernarakis, Konstantinos Voumvourakis, Michalis Arvanitis, Dimitrios Sakellariou and Filippo DeLorenzo

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2018 18:186

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  27. Content type: Research article

    Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is a severe complication in longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) patients. It may interfere with LETM treatment and delay the recovery of the spinal dysfunction. How...

    Authors: Tian Song, Xindi Li, Yonghong Liu and Xinghu Zhang

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2018 18:179

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  28. Content type: Case report

    Alemtuzumab has been demonstrated to reduce the risks of relapse and accumulation of sustained disability in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients compared to β-interferon. It acts against CD52, leading primarily t...

    Authors: A. G. Vakrakou, D. Tzanetakos, S. Valsami, E. Grigoriou, K. Psarra, J. Tzartos, M. Anagnostouli, E. Andreadou, M. E. Evangelopoulos, G. Koutsis, C. Chrysovitsanou, E. Gialafos, A. Dimitrakopoulos, L. Stefanis and C. Kilidireas

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2018 18:178

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  29. Content type: Research article

    Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) often coexist with connective tissue disorders (CTD). The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the features of NMOSD with and without CTD.

    Authors: Chun-Sheng Yang, Qiu Xia Zhang, Sheng Hui Chang, Lin Jie Zhang, Li Min Li, Yuan Qi, Jing Wang, Zhi Hua Sun, Nannan Zhangning, Li Yang and Fu-Dong Shi

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2018 18:177

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  30. Content type: Research article

    The validation of international cognitive batteries in different multiple sclerosis (MS) populations is essential. Our objective was to obtain normative data for the Portuguese population of the Brief Internat...

    Authors: Cláudia Sousa, Mariana Rigueiro-Neves, Telma Miranda, Paulo Alegria, José Vale, Ana Margarida Passos, Dawn Langdon and Maria José Sá

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2018 18:172

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  31. Content type: Case report

    Besides CSF-flow obstruction, syringomyelia is associated with inflammatory spinal cord lesions. However, syringomyelia-like syndrome concomitant with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) and primary...

    Authors: Xiangling Li, Zhengqi Lu and Yanqiang Wang

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2018 18:168

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  32. Content type: Case report

    Herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) is an inflammation related to reactivation of the latent varicella zoster virus (VZV), involving the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve. Optic neuritis (ON), a rare ocul...

    Authors: Kavin Vanikieti, Anuchit Poonyathalang, Panitha Jindahra, Piyaphon Cheecharoen, Patchalin Patputtipong and Tanyatuth Padungkiatsagul

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2018 18:165

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  33. Content type: Research article

    We systematically reviewed the comparative effectiveness of injectable beta-interferons (IFN-β) and glatiramer acetate (GA) on annualised relapse rate (ARR), progression and discontinuation due to adverse even...

    Authors: G. J. Melendez-Torres, Xavier Armoiry, Rachel Court, Jacoby Patterson, Alan Kan, Peter Auguste, Jason Madan, Carl Counsell, Olga Ciccarelli and Aileen Clarke

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2018 18:162

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  34. Content type: Research article

    To investigate visual recovery after treatment of acute optic neuritis (ON) with either oral or intravenous high-dose methylprednisolone, in order to establish the best route of administration.

    Authors: Magdalena Naumovska, Rafi Sheikh, Boel Bengtsson, Malin Malmsjö and Björn Hammar

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2018 18:160

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  35. Content type: Research article

    In the PRISMS study, interferon beta-1a subcutaneously (IFN β-1a SC) reduced clinical and radiological disease burden at 2 years in patients with relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis. The study aimed to char...

    Authors: Anthony Traboulsee, David K. B. Li, Mark Cascione, Juanzhi Fang, Fernando Dangond and Aaron Miller

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2018 18:143

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  36. Content type: Research article

    It is essential to investigate cognitive deficits in multiple sclerosis (MS) to develop evidence-based cognitive rehabilitation strategies. Here we refined cognitive decline assessment using the automated test...

    Authors: Hideraldo Luis Souza Cabeça, Luciano Chaves Rocha, Amanda Ferreira Sabbá, Alessandra Mendonça Tomás, Natali Valim Oliver Bento-Torres, Daniel Clive Anthony and Cristovam Wanderley Picanço Diniz

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2018 18:140

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  37. Content type: Research article

    Sleep disorders and fatigue are common in multiple sclerosis (MS). The underlying causes are not fully understood, and prospective studies are lacking. Therefore, we conducted a prospective, observational coho...

    Authors: Sylvia Kotterba, Thomas Neusser, Christiane Norenberg, Patrick Bussfeld, Thomas Glaser, Martin Dörner and Markus Schürks

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2018 18:123

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  38. Content type: Study protocol

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the most frequently observed neurological conditions in Switzerland, but data sources for country-wide epidemiological trend monitoring are lacking. Moreover, while clinical a...

    Authors: Nina Steinemann, Jens Kuhle, Pasquale Calabrese, Jürg Kesselring, Giulio Disanto, Doron Merkler, Caroline Pot, Vladeta Ajdacic-Gross, Stephanie Rodgers, Milo Alan Puhan and Viktor von Wyl

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2018 18:111

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  39. Content type: Research article

    Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) has the potential to provide microstructural insights into myelin and axonal pathology with additional kurtosis parameters. To our knowledge, few studies are available in the c...

    Authors: Hai Qing Li, Bo Yin, Chao Quan, Dao Ying Geng, Hai Yu, Yi Fang Bao, Jun Liu and Yu Xin Li

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2018 18:108

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  40. Content type: Research article

    Nocturia is a common urinary symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS) which can affect quality of life (QoL) adversely. Melatonin is a hormone known to regulate circadian rhythm and reduce smooth muscle activity suc...

    Authors: Marcus J. Drake, Luke Canham, Nikki Cotterill, Debbie Delgado, Jenny Homewood, Kirsty Inglis, Lyndsey Johnson, Mary C. Kisanga, Denise Owen, Paul White and David Cottrell

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2018 18:107

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  41. Content type: Research article

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common non-traumatic condition that leads to disability among young individuals. It is associated with demyelination, inflammation, and neurodegeneration within the central ...

    Authors: Osama Al Wutayd, Ashri Gad Mohamed, Jameelah Saeedi, Hessa Al Otaibi and Mohammed Al Jumah

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2018 18:86

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  42. Content type: Case report

    Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS) and Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis (BBE) are a group of autoimmune neurological disorders (GBS spectrum disorder) that rarely recur. Recently, an...

    Authors: Hiroto Ito, Yuki Hatanaka, Yuki Fukami, Yumiko Harada, Rei Kobayashi, Hisashi Okada, Ayumi Uchibori, Atsuro Chiba and Satoshi Okuda

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2018 18:72

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  43. Content type: Research article

    On-treatment magnetic resonance imaging lesions may predict long-term clinical outcomes in patients receiving interferon β-1a. This study aimed to assess the effect of active T2 and T1 gadolinium-enhancing (Gd...

    Authors: Anthony Traboulsee, David K. B. Li, Mark Cascione, Juanzhi Fang, Fernando Dangond and Aaron Miller

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2018 18:68

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  44. Content type: Research article

    The principal biomarker of neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis (MS) is believed to be brain volume, which is associated with cognitive functions and retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL). A cross-sectional and ...

    Authors: Jessica Frau, Giuseppe Fenu, Alessio Signori, Giancarlo Coghe, Lorena Lorefice, Maria Antonietta Barracciu, Vincenzo Sechi, Federico Cabras, Mauro Badas, Maria Giovanna Marrosu and Eleonora Cocco

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2018 18:67

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  45. Content type: Research article

    Congenital sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) lyase deficiency due to biallelic mutations in SGPL1 gene has recently been described in association with primary adrenal insufficiency and steroid-resistant nephrotic syn...

    Authors: Gulin Sunter, Ece Oge Enver, Azad Akbarzade, Serap Turan, Pinar Vatansever, Dilek Ince Gunal, Goncagul Haklar, Abdullah Bereket, Kadriye Agan and Tulay Guran

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2018 18:48

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  46. Content type: Research article

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is a devastating autoimmune inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system, which can result in blindness or paralysis. Currently, there is a dire need...

    Authors: Yujuan Jiao, Lei Cui, Weihe Zhang, Chunyu Zhang, Yeqiong Zhang, Xin Zhang and Jinsong Jiao

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2018 18:47

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  47. Content type: Case report

    The development of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is associated with severe cellular immunosuppression. Good’s syndrome (GS) is a rare immunodeficiency syndrome related to thymoma, with the d...

    Authors: Tatsuya Ueno, Nobuyuki Sato, Tomoya Kon, Rie Haga, Jin-ichi Nunomura, Kazuo Nakamichi, Masayuki Saijo and Masahiko Tomiyama

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2018 18:37

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  48. Content type: Research article

    Pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (POMS) prevalence and incidence rates are increasing globally. No disease-modifying therapy are approved for MS pediatric population. Hence, we aim to review the literature o...

    Authors: Raed Alroughani and Alexey Boyko

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2018 18:27

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  49. Content type: Research article

    Tehran is the capital of Iran with an increasing multiple sclerosis (MS) prevalence. A retrospective population-based study was conducted to evaluate the trends of MS prevalence in Tehran.

    Authors: Sharareh Eskandarieh, Narges Sistany Allahabadi, Malihe Sadeghi and Mohammad Ali Sahraian

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2018 18:15

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  50. Content type: Research article

    Some rheumatologic disorders may initially manifest with central nervous system (CNS) affection, mimicking the clinical, magnetic resonance imaging, and cerebrospinal fluid findings of multiple sclerosis (MS)....

    Authors: Tilman Hottenrott, Rick Dersch, Benjamin Berger, Dominique Endres, Daniela Huzly, Jens Thiel, Sebastian Rauer, Oliver Stich, Ulrich Salzer and Nils Venhoff

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2018 18:14

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