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Demyelinating diseases

Section edited by Francesco Patti

This section covers all types of demyelinating diseases. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to, multiple sclerosis, neuroimmunology, systemic lupus, vasculitis, lymphoma, and myelitis.

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  1. Symptoms arising from vestibular system dysfunction are observed in 49–59% of people with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Symptoms may include vertigo, dizziness and/or imbalance. These impact on functional ability, ...

    Authors: J. Marsden, M. Pavlou, R. Dennett, A. Gibbon, R. Knight-Lozano, L. Jeu, C. Flavell, J. Freeman, D. E. Bamiou, C. Harris, A. Hawton, E. Goodwin, B. Jones and S. Creanor

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2020 20:430

    Content type: Study protocol

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  2. Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis is a severe autoimmune encephalitis mediated by anti-NMDA receptor antibodies. Brain MRI manifestations vary and are non-specific. If there are any lesion...

    Authors: Rupan Gao, Xiang Zhang, Abhijeet Kumar Bhekharee and Yue Zhang

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2020 20:421

    Content type: Case report

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  3. Baló’s Concentric Sclerosis (BCS) is a rare heterogeneous demyelinating disease with a variety of phenotypes on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Existing literature lacks data especially on the therapeutic ap...

    Authors: D. Tzanetakos, A. G. Vakrakou, J. S. Tzartos, G. Velonakis, M. E. Evangelopoulos, M. Anagnostouli, G. Koutsis, E. Dardiotis, E. Karavasilis, P. Toulas, L. Stefanis and C. Kilidireas

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2020 20:400

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurological disease that is caused by an autoimmune response that results in the neuron’s demyelination in the central nervous system. The exact etiology of MS is not clear; howev...

    Authors: Raid M. Kofahi, Hassan M. Kofahi, Suhib Sabaheen, Majdi Al Qawasmeh, Aiman Momani, Ahmed Yassin, Kefah Alhayk and Khalid El-Salem

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2020 20:397

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Hepatitis E infection affects over 20 million people worldwide. Reports of neurological manifestations are largely limited to the peripheral nervous system. We report a middle-aged genotype 3c male patient wit...

    Authors: Jan Rahmig, Arne Grey, Marco Berning, Jochen Schaefer, Martin Lesser, Heinz Reichmann, Volker Puetz, Kristian Barlinn and Timo Siepmann

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2020 20:391

    Content type: Case report

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  6. In this pooled, post hoc analysis of a phase 2 trial and the phase 3 TEMSO, TOWER, and TENERE clinical trials, long-term efficacy and safety of teriflunomide were assessed in subgroups of patients with relapsi...

    Authors: Giancarlo Comi, Mark S. Freedman, José E. Meca-Lallana, Patrick Vermersch, Byoung Joon Kim, Alexander Parajeles, Keith R. Edwards, Ralf Gold, Houari Korideck, Jeffrey Chavin, Elizabeth M. Poole and Patricia K. Coyle

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2020 20:364

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Susac syndrome (SuS) is a rare condition characterized by a clinical triad of sensorineural hearing loss, branch artery occlusion and encephalopathy. This study reports an increased incidence of SuS in Israel....

    Authors: A. Wilf-Yarkoni, O. Elkayam, O. Aizenstein, Y. Oron, V. Furer, D. Zur, M. Goldstein, D. Barequet, H. Hallevi, A. Karni, Z. Habot-Wilner and K. Regev

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2020 20:332

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Nonadherence to disease-modifying drugs (DMDs) for multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with poorer clinical outcomes, including higher rates of relapse and disease progression, and higher medical resource us...

    Authors: Jacqueline A. Nicholas, Natalie C. Edwards, Roger A. Edwards, Anna Dellarole, Megan Grosso and Amy L. Phillips

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2020 20:281

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Several studies have reported the association between polymorphisms in Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) gene family and risk of Multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the results have been inconsistent and inconclu...

    Authors: Mina Mohammadhosayni, Arezou Khosrojerdi, Keivan Lorian, Saeed Aslani, Danyal Imani, Bahman Razi, Farhad Babaie and Shahram Torkamandi

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2020 20:218

    Content type: Research article

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  10. A high multiple sclerosis activity while on alemtuzumab is rather uncommon compared to moderate-efficacy drugs. The purpose of this case report is to present a case of a 37-year-old female patient with bronchi...

    Authors: Martin Vališ, Pavel Ryška, Simona Halúsková, Blanka Klímová and Zbyšek Pavelek

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2020 20:202

    Content type: Case report

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  11. Stress cardiomyopathy (Takotsubo cardiomyopathy) is very rare in the central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating disorders. Although this dysfunction of the heart-brain axis has been reported in several case se...

    Authors: Sungsik An, Hyeo-il Ma, Jooyeon Song, Hong-Mi Choi and Young Eun Kim

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2020 20:201

    Content type: Case report

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  12. The prevalence of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) has been increasing worldwide and the north–south gradient of prevalence may be disappearing in the Northern hemisphere. The few previous prevalence studies performed ...

    Authors: Mariana Branco, Ivânia Alves, Ana Martins da Silva, Joaquim Pinheiro, Maria José Sá, Inês Correia, Lívia Sousa, Eva Brandão, Carlos Veira, Bernardo Gomes and Luis Ruano

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2020 20:195

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Cognitive impairment is common in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Accurate and repeatable measures of cognition have the potential to be used as markers of disease activity.

    Authors: Seyed-Mahdi Khaligh-Razavi, Maryam Sadeghi, Mahdiyeh Khanbagi, Chris Kalafatis and Seyed Massood Nabavi

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2020 20:193

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Diverse mechanisms including infections, autoimmune inflammatory reactions, neoplasms, and degeneration are involved in the central nervous system in cases of acquired immune deficiency syndrome. In such cases...

    Authors: Mayu Ishiguro, Yuji Ueno, Yuta Ishiguro, Masashi Takanashi, Kenji Murai, Guillaume Taieb, Kensuke Daida, Akimitsu Suda, Kazumasa Yokoyama, Toshio Naito and Nobutaka Hattori

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2020 20:179

    Content type: Case report

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  15. Neurodegeneration, rather than inflammation, plays a key role in the progressive phase of multiple sclerosis (MS). Current disease modifying treatment options for people with progressive MS (PMS) do not specif...

    Authors: A. S. Gravesteijn, H. Beckerman, B. A. de Jong, H. E. Hulst and V. de Groot

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2020 20:177

    Content type: Study protocol

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  16. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic immune mediated disease and the progressive phase appears to have significant neurodegenerative mechanisms. The classification of the course of progressive MS (PMS) has bee...

    Authors: Ethel Ciampi, Reinaldo Uribe-San-Martin, Claudia Cárcamo, Juan Pablo Cruz, Ana Reyes, Diego Reyes, Carmen Pinto, Macarena Vásquez, Rafael A. Burgos and Juan Hancke

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2020 20:173

    Content type: Research article

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  17. The epidemiological characteristics of multiple sclerosis (MS) have been investigated in various studies, which have revealed that the prevalence of MS varies across countries. The present study was conducted ...

    Authors: Amir Almasi-Hashiani, Mohammad Ali Sahraian and Sharareh Eskandarieh

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2020 20:169

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Research is needed to examine differences in multiple sclerosis (MS) prevalence by race-ethnicity. The goal of this study was to quantify MS prevalence in a health care system in Northern California and examin...

    Authors: Robert J. Romanelli, Qiwen Huang, Joseph Lacy, Lobat Hashemi, Alana Wong and Alden Smith

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2020 20:163

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Fingolimod (Gilenya®), a first-in-class sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor modulator is approved for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Fingolimod-induced selective immunosuppression leads ...

    Authors: Tobias Wienemann, Ann-Kristin Müller, Colin MacKenzie, Carina Bielor, Vivien Weyers, Orhan Aktas, Hans-Peter Hartung and David Kremer

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2020 20:158

    Content type: Case report

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  20. Evoked potentials (EPs) are a measure of the conductivity of the central nervous system. They are used to monitor disease progression of multiple sclerosis patients. Previous studies only extracted a few varia...

    Authors: Jan Yperman, Thijs Becker, Dirk Valkenborg, Veronica Popescu, Niels Hellings, Bart Van Wijmeersch and Liesbet M. Peeters

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2020 20:105

    Content type: Research Article

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  21. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease that requires lifelong treatment. A highly effective drug not only for relapsing but also for progressive forms of MS with a favorable safety profile is needed to f...

    Authors: Petra Dirks, Vera Zingler, Jost Leemhuis, Heike Berthold, Stefanie Hieke-Schulz, David Wormser and Tjalf Ziemssen

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2020 20:95

    Content type: Study protocol

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  22. Neuroprotection and promotion of remyelination represent important therapeutic gaps in multiple sclerosis (MS). Acute optic neuritis (ON) is a frequent MS manifestation. Based on the presence and properties of...

    Authors: Christian Albert, Janine Mikolajczak, Anja Liekfeld, Sophie K. Piper, Michael Scheel, Hanna G. Zimmermann, Claus Nowak, Jan Dörr, Judith Bellmann-Strobl, Claudia Chien, Alexander U. Brandt, Friedemann Paul and Olaf Hoffmann

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2020 20:75

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Genetic and environmental factors seem to have etiologic roles in multiple sclerosis (MS). Kuwait is regarded as medium to high risk country for MS. However, there is a paucity of published data on the risk fa...

    Authors: Hadeel El-Muzaini, Saeed Akhtar and Raed Alroughani

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2020 20:64

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Neurology 2020 20:306

  24. Information of Previous studies on the prevalence of MS, including our study conducted 12 years ago, used to shape global prevalence map of MS. According to those results, Iran placed in medium-prevalence MS r...

    Authors: Seyed Mohammad Baghbanian, Hamed Cheraghmakani, Reza HabibiSaravi, Arash Azar and Fariba Ghasemihamedani

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2020 20:52

    Content type: Research article

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  25. In 2015, the first nationwide, multicenter Multiple Sclerosis (MS) registry was initiated in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) mainly with an objective to describe current epidemiology, disease patterns, and c...

    Authors: Mohammed AlJumah, R. Bunyan, H. Al Otaibi, G. Al Towaijri, A. Karim, Y. Al Malik, M. Kalakatawi, S. Alrajeh, M. Al Mejally, H. Algahtani, A. Almubarak, E. Cupler, S. Alawi, S. Qureshi, S. Nahrir, A. Almalki…

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2020 20:49

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Aerobic training has the potential to restore function, stimulate brain repair, and reduce inflammation in people with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). However, disability, fatigue, and heat sensitivity are major barr...

    Authors: Augustine J. Devasahayam, Arthur R. Chaves, Wendy O. Lasisi, Marie E. Curtis, Katie P. Wadden, Liam P. Kelly, Ryan Pretty, Alice Chen, Elizabeth M. Wallack, Caitlin J. Newell, John B. Williams, Hannah Kenny, Matthew B. Downer, Jason McCarthy, Craig S. Moore and Michelle Ploughman

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2020 20:33

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Most patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) suffer from bladder dysfunction during the course of the disease. This study was conducted to examine the prevalence of these complications among patients with MS.

    Authors: Fatemeh Nazari, Vahid Shaygannejad, Mehrdad Mohammadi Sichani, Marjan Mansourian and Valiollah Hajhashemi

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2020 20:24

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Occurrence of basal ganglia involvement in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) has rarely been reported and none documented pathologically.

    Authors: Shinji Ohara, Taka-aki Miyahira, Kenya Oguchi, Yo-ichi Takei, Fumihiro Yanagimura, Izumi Kawachi, Kiyomitsu Oyanagi and Akiyoshi Kakita

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:351

    Content type: Case report

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  29. The Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) is regarded as the cognitive test of choice for people with MS (pwMS). While deficits are linked to impaired processing speed, the mechanisms by which they arise are unc...

    Authors: Bennis Pavisian, Viral P. Patel and Anthony Feinstein

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:340

    Content type: Research article

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  30. The association between the Vitamin D Receptor (VDR) gene polymorphism and the risk of Multiple sclerosis (MS) has been evaluated in several researches. However, the findings were inconsistent and inconclusive. T...

    Authors: Danyal Imani, Bahman Razi, Morteza Motallebnezhad and Ramazan Rezaei

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:339

    Content type: Research article

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  31. To investigate whether the serum free thyroxine (FT4) level is a prognostic factor for the first-attack neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD).

    Authors: Qianyi He, Lifeng Li, Yanfei Li, Yanhui Lu, Kaimin Wu, Ruiyi Zhang, Junfang Teng, Jie Zhao and Yanjie Jia

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:329

    Content type: Research article

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  32. The X-linked form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1 (CMTX1) is an inherited peripheral neuropathy that arises in patients with mutations in the gap-junction beta-1 gene (GJB1).

    Authors: Youlong Liang, Jingli Liu, Daobin Cheng, Yu Wu, Liuhong Mo and Wen Huang

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:325

    Content type: Case report

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  33. In this study, we aimed to understand the trends in total and itemized medical expenses, especially of disease-modifying therapy (DMT), for multiple sclerosis (MS) in Japan through an analysis of health insura...

    Authors: Izumi Kawachi, Shuichi Okamoto, Mariko Sakamoto, Hiroyuki Ohta, Yusuke Nakamura, Kosuke Iwasaki, Manami Yoshida, Shinzo Hiroi and Mieko Ogino

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:324

    Content type: Research article

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  34. The relevance of regular moderate to intense exercise for ameliorating psychomotor symptoms in persons with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) is becoming increasingly evident. Over the last two decades, emerging evide...

    Authors: Sebastian Proschinger, Niklas Joisten, Annette Rademacher, Marit L. Schlagheck, David Walzik, Alan J. Metcalfe, Max Oberste, Clemens Warnke, Wilhelm Bloch, Alexander Schenk, Jens Bansi and Philipp Zimmer

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:314

    Content type: Study protocol

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  35. Fingolimod (Gilenya®) is approved for relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis in the USA. Owing to transient heart-rate effects when initiating fingolimod, eligible patients undergo precautionary baseline assess...

    Authors: Brandon Brown, Jamie L. Weiss, Scott Kolodny, Xiangyi Meng, Ian M. Williams and John A. Osborne

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:287

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Neurology 2019 19:336

  36. Some studies have looked at the age at menarche and risk of Multiple Sclerosis (MS).We aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate a pooled odds ratio of developing MS by increasing age ...

    Authors: Amirreza Azimi, Sara Hanaei, Mohammad Ali Sahraian, Mehdi Mohammadifar, Sreeram V. Ramagopalan and Mahsa Ghajarzadeh

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:286

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rapidly developing demyelinating disease in the cerebral white matter and is often caused by JC polyomavirus (JCV). PML after lung transplantation is rare ...

    Authors: Kazuhiro Ishii, Fumiko Yamamoto, Shinsuke Homma, Yoshinori Okada, Kazuo Nakamichi, Masayuki Saijo and Akira Tamaoka

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:263

    Content type: Case report

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  38. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is prevalent among working age individuals (20–60 years), leading to high burden on work productivity. Few data are available about the absenteeism and presenteeism in employed individu...

    Authors: Jacqueline A. Nicholas, Batul Electricwala, Lulu K. Lee and Kristen M. Johnson

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:258

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Demyelinating central nervous system diseases include several disorders that multiple sclerosis (MS) is identified as the most common among them. Ocular movement disturbances are a typical presentation in MS p...

    Authors: Amirhossein Akhavan Sigari, Masoud Etemadifar and Mehri Salari

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:254

    Content type: Case report

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  40. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating disorder caused by JC virus (JCV). Although detecting JCV DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) i...

    Authors: Kazuo Nakamichi, Michi Kawamoto, Junko Ishii and Masayuki Saijo

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:252

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Clinical and imaging follow-up coupled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and possibly serum profiling could provide information on disease activity and disability evolution in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Authors: R. Magliozzi, D. Marastoni, S. Rossi, M. Castellaro, V. Mazziotti, M. Pitteri, A. Gajofatto, S. Monaco, M. D. Benedetti and M. Calabrese

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:231

    Content type: Case report

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