Skip to content


Demyelinating diseases

Section edited by Francesco Patti and Tjalf Ziemssen

This section covers all types of demyelinating diseases. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to, multiple sclerosis, neuroimmunology, systemic lupus, vasculitis, lymphoma, and myelitis.

Page 3 of 6

  1. Content type: Research article

    Andrographis paniculata (A. paniculata), a medicinal plant, has shown anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and antifibrotic effects in animal models as well as clinical efficacy in different studies, including an a...

    Authors: J. C. Bertoglio, M. Baumgartner, R. Palma, E. Ciampi, C. Carcamo, D. D. Cáceres, G. Acosta-Jamett, J. L. Hancke and R. A. Burgos

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2016 16:77

    Published on:

  2. Content type: Debate

    Accumulating evidences from experimental, epidemiologic and clinical studies support the potential linkage between poor vitamin D status and the risk of developing Multiple Sclerosis (MS), as well as, an adver...

    Authors: Soodeh Razeghi Jahromi, Mohammad Ali Sahraian, Mansoureh Togha, Behnaz Sedighi, Vahid Shayegannejad, Alireza Nickseresht, Shahriar Nafissi, Niayesh Mohebbi, Nastran Majdinasab, Mohsen Foroughipour, Masoud Etemadifar, Nahid Beladi Moghadam, Hormoz Ayramlou, Fereshteh Ashtari and Shekoofe Alaie

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2016 16:76

    Published on:

  3. Content type: Study protocol

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an incurable, unpredictable but typically progressive neurological condition. It is the most common cause of neurological disability in young adults. Within 15 years of diagnosis, ap...

    Authors: J. A. Freeman, W. Hendrie, S. Creanor, L. Jarrett, A. Barton, C. Green, J. Marsden, E. Rogers and J. Zajicek

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2016 16:62

    Published on:

  4. Content type: Study protocol

    The management of multiple sclerosis (MS) is rapidly changing by the introduction of new and more effective disease-modifying agents. The importance of risk stratification was confirmed by results on disease p...

    Authors: Gustavo Saposnik, Angel Perez Sempere, Roula Raptis, Daniel Prefasi, Daniel Selchen and Jorge Maurino

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2016 16:58

    Published on:

  5. Content type: Research article

    Reversible splenial lesion syndrome (RESLES) is a disorder radiologically characterized by reversible lesion in the splenium of the corpus callosum (SCC). Most of patients with RESLES associated with encephali...

    Authors: Yuanzhao Zhu, Junjun Zheng, Ling Zhang, Zhenguo Zeng, Min Zhu, Xiaobin Li, Xiaoliang Lou, Hui Wan and Daojun Hong

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2016 16:49

    Published on:

  6. Content type: Review

    Leakage of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a common pathological feature in multiple sclerosis (MS). Following a breach of the BBB, albumin, the most abundant protein in plasma, gains access to CNS tissue whe...

    Authors: Steven M. LeVine

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2016 16:47

    Published on:

  7. Content type: Study protocol

    Alemtuzumab (Lemtrada®) is a newly approved therapeutic agent for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). In previous phase II and III clinical trials, alemtuzumab has proven superior efficacy to subcut...

    Authors: Tobias Ruck, Ali Maisam Afzali, Karl-Friedrich Lukat, Maria Eveslage, Catharina C. Gross, Steffen Pfeuffer, Stefan Bittner, Luisa Klotz, Nico Melzer, Heinz Wiendl and Sven G. Meuth

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2016 16:34

    Published on:

  8. Content type: Research article

    There is limited knowledge regarding how depressive symptoms and a cluster of specific mood symptoms in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) vary over time and how they are influenced by contributing factors. T...

    Authors: Sverker Johansson, Kristina Gottberg, Marie Kierkegaard and Charlotte Ytterberg

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2016 16:32

    Published on:

  9. Content type: Research article

    People with multiple sclerosis (MS) are increasingly using the Internet in the daily management of their condition. They search for high-quality information in plain language, from independent sources, based o...

    Authors: Cinzia Colombo, Graziella Filippini, Anneliese Synnot, Sophie Hill, Roberta Guglielmino, Silvia Traversa, Paolo Confalonieri, Paola Mosconi and Irene Tramacere

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2016 16:30

    Published on:

  10. Content type: Case report

    Leukoencephalopathy with calcifications and cysts (LCC or Labrune disease) is a relatively recently defined and exceptionally rare disease in which parenchymal cysts and calcifications within a widespread leuk...

    Authors: C. Stephani, S. Pfeifenbring, A. Mohr and C. Stadelmann

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2016 16:19

    Published on:

  11. Content type: Study protocol

    Multiple Sclerosis has a great impact on psychological functioning of patients and can be associated with various mental health disorders and symptoms. The most prevalent one is depression, which ranges from 1...

    Authors: Sara Carletto, Martina Borghi, Diana Francone, Francesco Scavelli, Gabriella Bertino, Marco Cavallo, Simona Malucchi, Antonio Bertolotto, Francesco Oliva and Luca Ostacoli

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2016 16:7

    Published on:

  12. Content type: Case report

    The evidence on the use of the oral dimethyl-fumarate after the discontinuation of treatment with natalizumab in people with Multiple Sclerosis is still little. Natalizumab discontinuation may induce the recur...

    Authors: Francesco Patti, Carmela Leone and Mario Zappia

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2015 15:252

    Published on:

  13. Content type: Research article

    Cognitive deficits are common in multiple sclerosis (MS) and require continuous monitoring. In routine examinations, screening instruments such as the Brief Repeatable Battery (BRB) may serve this purpose. It ...

    Authors: Sascha Hansen, Jana Muenssinger, Simona Kronhofmann, Stefan Lautenbacher, Patrick Oschmann and Philipp M Keune

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2015 15:246

    Published on:

  14. Content type: Research article

    Positron emission tomography (PET) images with amyloid tracers show normal uptake in healthy white matter, which suggests that amyloid tracers are potentially useful for studying such white matter diseases as ...

    Authors: Jordi A. Matías-Guiu, María Nieves Cabrera-Martín, Jorge Matías-Guiu, Celia Oreja-Guevara, Cristina Riola-Parada, Teresa Moreno-Ramos, Juan Arrazola and José Luis Carreras

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2015 15:243

    Published on:

  15. Content type: Research article

    Interferon (IFN) beta-1a is an approved treatment for relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and has been examined for use in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS). However, no information reg...

    Authors: Michael Gurevich, Gadi Miron, Rina Zilkha Falb, David Magalashvili, Mark Dolev, Yael Stern and Anat Achiron

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2015 15:240

    Published on:

  16. Content type: Research article

    We aimed to determine the association of clinical and routine cerebrospinal fluid biochemical markers (total protein, IgG index and oligoclonal bands) with disability in multiple sclerosis and whether these bi...

    Authors: Madlyne Becker, Clotilde Latarche, Emilie Roman, Marc Debouverie, Catherine Malaplate-Armand and Francis Guillemin

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2015 15:79

    Published on:

  17. Content type: Research article

    Epidemiological studies describe a latitude gradient for increased MS prevalence and a preponderance of disease in Caucasian individuals. However, individuals from other ethnic backgrounds and low-risk regions...

    Authors: Richard S Nicholas, Vassiliki Kostadima, Maya Hanspal, Benjamin R Wakerley, Ruhena Sergeant, Saskia Decuypere, Omar Malik, Rosemary J Boyton and Daniel M Altmann

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2015 15:72

    Published on:

  18. Content type: Research article

    Decision-making is an essential function of everyday life. Decision-making under explicit risk requires developing advantageous decision strategies based on fixed outcomes (e.g., probabilities of winning or lo...

    Authors: Ashley D Radomski, Christopher Power, Scot E Purdon, Derek J Emery, Gregg Blevins, Kenneth G Warren and Esther Fujiwara

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2015 15:61

    Published on:

  19. Content type: Research article

    Neuropsychological batteries are infrequently used to assess cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis because they are time-consuming and require trained personnel. The Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) is...

    Authors: Mariana López-Góngora, Luis Querol and Antonio Escartín

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2015 15:40

    Published on:

  20. Content type: Case report

    Pol III-related leukodystrophies, including 4H leukodystrophy, are recently recognized disorders that comprise hypomyelination and various neurologic and non-neurologic clinical manifestations. We report the u...

    Authors: Ana Potic, Vera Popovic, Jelena Ostojic, Sandra Pekic, Dusko Kozic, Kether Guerrero, Raphael Schiffmann and Geneviève Bernard

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2015 15:22

    Published on:

  21. Content type: Research article

    People with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) endure walking limitations. To address this restriction, various physical rehabilitation programs have been implemented with no consensus regarding their efficacy. Our obj...

    Authors: Alon Kalron, Dalia Nitzani, David Magalashvili, Mark Dolev, Shay Menascu, Yael Stern, Uri Rosenblum, Diana Pasitselsky, Lior Frid, Gabi Zeilig, Caroline Barmatz, Uri Givon and Anat Achiron

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2015 15:21

    Published on:

  22. Content type: Case report

    Unusual presentations of multiple sclerosis (MS) at onset may post a diagnostic dilemma to the treating neurologists. Spinal myoclonus is rare in MS and may lead to perform extensive investigations to rule out...

    Authors: Raed Abdullah Alroughani, Samar Farouk Ahmed, Riyadh Ahmed Khan and Jasem Yousef Al-Hashel

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2015 15:15

    Published on:

  23. Content type: Research article

    Subcutaneous peginterferon beta-1a provided clinical benefits at Year 1 (placebo-controlled period) of the 2-Year Phase 3 ADVANCE study in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Here we report the effe...

    Authors: Douglas L Arnold, Peter A Calabresi, Bernd C Kieseier, Sarah I Sheikh, Aaron Deykin, Ying Zhu, Shifang Liu, Xiaojun You, Bjoern Sperling and Serena Hung

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:240

    Published on:

  24. Content type: Research article

    There are few, recent, well assessed, multiple sclerosis (MS) incidence surveys on European populations. This study sought to measure MS incidence in a Northern Lisbon population and assess it using capture-re...

    Authors: Joao de Sá, Enrique Alcalde-Cabero, Javier Almazán-Isla, Fernando García-López and Jesús de Pedro-Cuesta

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:249

    Published on:

  25. Content type: Study protocol

    Exercise has consistently yielded short-term, positive effects on health outcomes in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, these effects have not been maintained in the long-term. Behaviour change inte...

    Authors: Susan Coote, Stephen Gallagher, Rachel Msetfi, Aidan Larkin, John Newell, Robert W Motl and Sara Hayes

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:241

    Published on:

  26. Content type: Research article

    Spinal cord lesions is one of the predominant characteristics in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD). Interestingly, mounting evidence indicates that spinal cord atrophy (SCA) is one ...

    Authors: Yanqiang Wang, Aimin Wu, Xiaoyu Chen, Lei Zhang, Yinyao Lin, Shaoyang Sun, Wei Cai, Bingjun Zhang, Zhuang Kang, Wei Qiu, Xueqiang Hu and Zhengqi Lu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:246

    Published on:

  27. Content type: Case report

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a severely disabling inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system and is often misdiagnosed as multiple sclerosis (MS). There is increasing evidence that treatment options ...

    Authors: Jens Harmel, Marius Ringelstein, Jens Ingwersen, Christian Mathys, Norbert Goebels, Hans-Peter Hartung, Sven Jarius and Orhan Aktas

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:247

    Published on:

  28. Content type: Research article

    The risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) increases with increasing latitude. Taking into consideration that Norway has a large latitude range, a south-to-north gradient would be expected. However, previous studies ...

    Authors: Espen Benjaminsen, Johnny Olavsen, Merethe Karlberg and Karl B Alstadhaug

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:226

    Published on:

  29. Content type: Case report

    Myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody (MOG antibodies) was found in various demyelinated diseases. This is the first report of a patient with longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis with an extreme...

    Authors: Haruka Amano, Nobukazu Miyamoto, Hideki Shimura, Douglas Kazutoshi Sato, Kazuo Fujihara, Shinichi Ueno, Ryota Nakamura, Yuji Ueno, Masao Watanabe, Nobutaka Hattori and Takao Urabe

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:224

    Published on:

  30. Content type: Research article

    Multiple Sclerosis is a disease of the central nervous system involving a variety of debilitating physical, sensory, cognitive and emotional symptoms. This literature review evaluated the impact of psychologic...

    Authors: Francesco Pagnini, Colin M Bosma, Deborah Phillips and Ellen Langer

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:222

    Published on:

  31. Content type: Research article

    Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) and multiple sclerosis (MS) are inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system with different pathogenesis, brain lesion patterns, and treatment strategies. ...

    Authors: Ming-Feng Liao, Kuo-Hsuan Chang, Rong-Kuo Lyu, Chin-Chang Huang, Hong-Shiu Chang, Yih-Ru Wu, Chiung-Mei Chen, Chun-Che Chu, Hung-Chou Kuo and Long-Sun Ro

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:218

    Published on:

  32. Content type: Research article

    The clinical impact of neutralizing antibodies against interferon-beta (NAb) is controversial. Their presence can lead to a decrease in interferon-beta (IFNβ) efficacy. Fatigue reported in patients with multip...

    Authors: Philippe Manceau, Clotilde Latarche, Sophie Pittion, Gilles Edan, Jérôme de Sèze, Catherine Massart and Marc Debouverie

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:215

    Published on:

  33. Content type: Research article

    The Evaluate Patient OutComes (EPOC) study assessed physician- and patient-reported outcomes in individuals with relapsing multiple sclerosis who switched directly from injectable disease-modifying therapy (iD...

    Authors: Jonathan Calkwood, Bruce Cree, Heidi Crayton, Daniel Kantor, Brian Steingo, Luigi Barbato, Ron Hashmonay, Neetu Agashivala, Kevin McCague, Nadia Tenenbaum and Keith Edwards

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:220

    Published on:

  34. Content type: Case report

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a rare relapsing auto-immune disease of the central nervous system which is sometimes found in association with other autoimmune disorders including Sjogren’s syndrome. We present...

    Authors: Apoorva Jayarangaiah, Rahul Sehgal and Narendranath Epperla

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:200

    Published on:

  35. Content type: Research article

    Several environmental exposures, including infection with Epstein-Barr virus, low levels of vitamin D and smoking are established risk factors for multiple sclerosis (MS). Also, high hygienic standard and infe...

    Authors: Marte Wendel Gustavsen, Christian Magnus Page, Stine Marit Moen, Anja Bjølgerudl, Pål Berg-Hansen, Gro Owren Nygaard, Leiv Sandvik, Benedicte Alexandra Lie, Elisabeth Gulowsen Celius and Hanne F Harbo

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:196

    Published on:

  36. Content type: Research article

    The eight Performance Scales and three assimilated scales (PS) used in North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis (NARCOMS) registry surveys cover a broad range of neurologic domains commonly affe...

    Authors: Eric Chamot, Ilya Kister and Gary R Cutter

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:192

    Published on:

  37. Content type: Research article

    BICAMS (Brief International Cognitive Assessment for Multiple Sclerosis) has been recently developed as brief, practical and universal assessment tool for cognitive impairment in MS subjects. It includes the S...

    Authors: Benedetta Goretti, Claudia Niccolai, Bahia Hakiki, Andrea Sturchio, Monica Falautano, Eleonora Minacapelli, Vittorio Martinelli, Chiara Incerti, Ugo Nocentini, Monica Murgia, Giuseppe Fenu, Eleonora Cocco, Maria Giovanna Marrosu, Elisabetta Garofalo, Ferdinando Ivano Ambra, Maurizio Maddestra…

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:171

    Published on:

  38. Content type: Research article

    There are inconsistent reports about multiple sclerosis (MS) risk among migrants from low to high MS risk geographical regions. This study assessed the overall MS incidence and evaluated seasonality in birth a...

    Authors: Saeed Akhtar, Raed Alroughani, Ahmad Al-Shammari, Jarrah Al-Abkal and Yasser Ayad

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:170

    Published on:

  39. Content type: Research article

    Patients suffering from Multiple Sclerosis (MS) experience a wide array of symptoms, including balance problems, mobility impairment, fatigue and depression. Physical exercise has recently been acknowledged as...

    Authors: Janina M Burschka, Philipp M Keune, Ulrich Hofstadt-van Oy, Patrick Oschmann and Peter Kuhn

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:165

    Published on:

  40. Content type: Case report

    Fingolimod is a disease modifying therapy (DMT) in highly active relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), as is natalizumab. Fingolimod decreases annual relapse rates and gadolinium enhancing lesions on ...

    Authors: Anne-Hilde Muris, Linda Rolf, Jan Damoiseaux, Ellen Koeman and Raymond Hupperts

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:164

    Published on:

  41. Content type: Research article

    Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) can coexist with non-organ-specific or organ-specific autoimmune diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the features between NMOSD without...

    Authors: Bingjun Zhang, Yi Zhong, Yanqiang Wang, Yongqiang Dai, Wei Qiu, Lei Zhang, Haiyan Li and Zhengqi Lu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:162

    Published on:

  42. Content type: Research article

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a common neurodegenerative disease, which often has a devastating effect on physical and emotional wellbeing of people with MS (PwMS). Several studies have shown positive effects of ...

    Authors: Claudia H Marck, Emily J Hadgkiss, Tracey J Weiland, Dania M van der Meer, Naresh G Pereira and George A Jelinek

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:143

    Published on:

  43. Content type: Research article

    Cell-based assays for neuromyelitis optica (NMO) diagnosis are the most sensitive and specific methods to detect anti-aquaporin 4 (AQP4) antibodies in serum, but some improvements in their quantitative and spe...

    Authors: Ismael Sánchez Gomar, María Díaz Sánchez, Antonio José Uclés Sánchez, José Luis Casado Chocán, Reposo Ramírez-Lorca, Ana Serna, Javier Villadiego, Juan José Toledo-Aral and Miriam Echevarría

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:139

    Published on:

  44. Content type: Research article

    Comorbidity in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is associated with worse health and higher mortality. This study aims to describe clinician recorded comorbidities in people with MS.

    Authors: Robert J Simpson, Gary McLean, Bruce Guthrie, Frances Mair and Stewart W Mercer

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:128

    Published on: