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Demyelinating diseases

Section edited by Francesco Patti and Tjalf Ziemssen

This section covers all types of demyelinating diseases. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to, multiple sclerosis, neuroimmunology, systemic lupus, vasculitis, lymphoma, and myelitis.

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  1. Content type: Research article

    Optimal patient selection would improve the risk-benefit ratio of natalizumab treatment for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR MS). Clinical features of subjects responding to natalizumab have not been...

    Authors: Alice Laroni, Ilaria Gandoglia, Claudio Solaro, Giuseppe Ribizzi, Tiziana Tassinari, Matteo Pizzorno, Sergio Parodi, Giovanna Baldassarre, Maria Teresa Rilla, Simonetta Venturi, Elisabetta Capello, Maria Pia Sormani, Antonio Uccelli and Giovanni Luigi Mancardi

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:103

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  2. Content type: Research article

    The 2010 Revisions to the McDonald Criteria have established that dissemination in time (DIT) of multiple sclerosis (MS) can be demonstrated by simultaneous presence of asymptomatic gadolinium-enhancing and no...

    Authors: Chung-Ping Lo, Hung-Wen Kao, Shao-Yuan Chen, Chi-Ming Chu, Chia-Chun Hsu, Ying-Chu Chen, Wei-Chen Lin, Dai-Wei Liu and Wen-Lin Hsu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:100

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  3. Content type: Case report

    Bickerstaff’s encephalitis (BE) is an acute post-infectious demyelinating disease with albuminocytological dissociation. A chronic form has rarely been described previously.

    Authors: Mathilde Renaud, Jérôme Aupy, Guillaume Camuset, Nicolas Collongues, Jean-Baptiste Chanson, Jérôme de Seze and Frédéric Blanc

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:99

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  4. Content type: Research article

    The relative frequencies of demyelinating diseases among Korean patients with idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (IIDD) have not been sufficiently studied. We therefore...

    Authors: Sung-Min Kim, Patrick Waters, Mark Woodhall, Ji Won Yang, Hyeran Yang, Jee-Eun Kim, Jung-Joon Sung, Kyung Seok Park and Kwang-Woo Lee

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:93

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  5. Content type: Research article

    A possible role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) and in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis has been suggested. The detoxification enzyme NAD(P)H dehydrogenase, quinone ...

    Authors: José A G Agúndez, Elena García-Martín, Carmen Martínez, Julián Benito-León, Jorge Millán-Pascual, Patricia Calleja, María Díaz-Sánchez, Diana Pisa, Laura Turpín-Fenoll, Hortensia Alonso-Navarro, Lucía Ayuso-Peralta, Dolores Torrecillas, José Francisco Plaza-Nieto and Félix Javier Jiménez-Jiménez

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:87

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Many patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) treated with high-dose interferon-β (IFNβ) develop serum binding antibodies (BAb) and neutralizing antibodies (NAb). NAb reduces the biological activ...

    Authors: Edward Fox, Barbara Green, Clyde Markowitz, Ronald Murray, Andrew D Goodman, Stephen J Glenski, Pippa Loupe and Jo Nita Cogburn

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:73

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  7. Content type: Research article

    In the PREDICT study, a randomised controlled trial comparing dexamethasone with prednisolone in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP), almost a quarter of patients det...

    Authors: Filip Eftimov, Marinus H Liesdek, Camillus Verhamme and Ivo N van Schaik

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:72

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  8. Content type: Case report

    Tumefactive demyelinating lesions are a rare manifestation of multiple sclerosis (MS). Differential diagnosis of such space occupying lesions may not be straightforward and sometimes necessitate brain biopsy. ...

    Authors: Sharmilee Gnanapavan, Zane Jaunmuktane, Kelly Pegoretti Baruteau, Sakthivel Gnanasambandam and Klaus Schmierer

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:68

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  9. Content type: Research article

    In patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) fingolimod prevents disease relapses and delays disability progression. First dose administration of fingolimod is associated with a transient, dose-dependent dec...

    Authors: Alice Laroni, Davide Brogi, Vincenzo Brescia Morra, Leonello Guidi, Carlo Pozzilli, Giancarlo Comi, Alessandra Lugaresi, Renato Turrini, Debora Raimondi, Antonio Uccelli and Giovanni Luigi Mancardi

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:65

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  10. Content type: Research article

    There are a number of instruments that describe severity and progression of multiple sclerosis and they are increasingly used as endpoints to assess the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions. We examined ...

    Authors: Sandra Meyer-Moock, You-Shan Feng, Mathias Maeurer, Franz-Werner Dippel and Thomas Kohlmann

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:58

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  11. Content type: Debate

    Month-long daytime Ramadan fasting pose s major challenges to multiple sclerosis (MS) patients in Muslim countries. Physicians should have practical knowledge on the implications of fasting on MS. We present a...

    Authors: Soodeh Razeghi Jahromi, Mohammad Ali Sahraian, Fereshteh Ashtari, Hormoz Ayromlou, Massoud Etemadifar, Majid Ghaffarpour, Ehsan Mohammadianinejad, Shahriar Nafissi, Alireza Nickseresht, Vahid Shaygannejad, Mansoreh Togha, Hamid Reza Torabi and Shadi Ziaie

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:56

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Data sources for MS research are numerous but rarely provide an objective measure of drug therapy compliance coupled with patient-reported health outcomes. The objective of this paper is to describe the method...

    Authors: Patricia K Coyle, Bruce A Cohen, Thomas Leist, Clyde Markowitz, MerriKay Oleen-Burkey, Marc Schwartz, Mark J Tullman and Howard Zwibel

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:49

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  13. Content type: Research article

    There is increasing research that examines gender-issues in multiple sclerosis (MS), but little focus has been placed on gender-issues regarding physical activity. The aim of the present study was to describe ...

    Authors: Elisabeth Anens, Margareta Emtner, Lena Zetterberg and Karin Hellström

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:47

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  14. Content type: Research article

    De-escalating natalizumab (NTZ) to interferon beta 1b (IFN B 1B) is a possible treatment option in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients interrupting NTZ because of increased risk of progressive multifocal leukoenc...

    Authors: Chiara Zecca, Gianna C Riccitelli, Pasquale Calabrese, Emanuele Pravatà, Ursula Candrian, Charles RG Guttmann and Claudio Gobbi

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:38

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  15. Content type: Research article

    Although common and often disabling in multiple sclerosis (MS), visual dysfunction is currently not adequately accounted for in both clinical routine and MS trials. Sloan low contrast letter acuity (SLCLA) is ...

    Authors: Johann Schinzel, Hanna Zimmermann, Friedemann Paul, Klemens Ruprecht, Katrin Hahn, Alexander U Brandt and Jan Dörr

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:31

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  16. Content type: Research article

    A number of reports have described the presence of tuberculosis (TB) in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) patients. However, a definite association between the two conditions has not been conclusively demonstrated.

    Authors: Rui Li, Xiaonan Zhong, Wei Qiu, Aimin Wu, Yongqiang Dai, Zhengqi Lu and Xueqiang Hu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:33

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  17. Content type: Research article

    Natalizumab, a highly specific α4-integrin antagonist, , has recently been registered across the Middle East and North Africa region. It improves clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) outcomes and redu...

    Authors: Raed A Alroughani, Hany M Aref, Saeed A Bohlega, Maurice P Dahdaleh, Imed Feki, Mohammed A Al Jumah, Muhammad Z Al-Kawi, Salam F Koussa, Mohamad A Sahraian, Isa A Alsharoqi and Bassem I Yamout

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:27

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  18. Content type: Research article

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy is a rare acquired immune-mediated progressive or relapsing disorder causing peripheral neuropathic disease of duration more than two months. Many indi...

    Authors: Richard J Bright, Jenny Wilkinson and Brendon J Coventry

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:26

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  19. Content type: Research article

    A 6-month phase 2 study of fingolimod demonstrated efficacy and safety in Japanese patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). Here we report a 6-month observational extension that evaluated eff...

    Authors: Jun-ichi Kira, Yasuto Itoyama, Seiji Kikuchi, Qi Hao, Takayoshi Kurosawa, Kazuo Nagato, Isao Tsumiyama, Philipp von Rosenstiel, Lixin Zhang-Auberson and Takahiko Saida

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:21

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  20. Content type: Research article

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a stressful condition; depression, anxiety, pain and fatigue are all common problems. Mindfulness based interventions (MBIs) mitigate stress and prevent relapse in depression and are...

    Authors: Robert Simpson, Jo Booth, Maggie Lawrence, Sharon Byrne, Frances Mair and Stewart Mercer

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:15

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Long-term persistence to treatment for chronic disease is difficult for patients to achieve, regardless of the disease or medication being used. The objective of this investigation was to examine treatment per...

    Authors: MerriKay Oleen-Burkey, Anissa Cyhaniuk and Eric Swallow

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:11

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  22. Content type: Research article

    Cognitive impairment could affect quality of life for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), and cognitive function may be correlated with several factors such as depression and fatigue. This study aimed to ev...

    Authors: Masaaki Niino, Nobuhiro Mifune, Tatsuo Kohriyama, Masahiro Mori, Takashi Ohashi, Izumi Kawachi, Yuko Shimizu, Hikoaki Fukaura, Ichiro Nakashima, Susumu Kusunoki, Katsuichi Miyamoto, Kazuto Yoshida, Takashi Kanda, Kyoichi Nomura, Takashi Yamamura, Fumihito Yoshii…

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:3

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  23. Content type: Case report

    Encephalitis with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibodies (anti-NMDAR-Ab) is a rapid-onset encephalitis including psychosis, seizures, various movement disorders and autonomic system disturbances.

    Authors: Olivier Outteryck, Guillaume Baille, Jérôme Hodel, Marianne Giroux, Arnaud Lacour, Jérôme Honnorat, Hélène Zéphir and Patrick Vermersch

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2013 13:211

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  24. Content type: Research article

    Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a fatal demyelinating disease caused by JC virus (JCV), occurs mainly in immunocompromised patients. While JCV DNA is detected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)...

    Authors: Kazuo Nakamichi, Naoki Inoue, Toshio Shimokawa, Ichiro Kurane, Chang-Kweng Lim and Masayuki Saijo

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2013 13:200

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  25. Content type: Case report

    Susac’s Syndrome (SS) consists of the triad of encephalopathy, branch retinal artery occlusions (BRAO) and hearing loss (HL). Histopathologically, SS is characterised by a microangiopathy, and some observation...

    Authors: Maik Engeholm, Beate Leo-Kottler, Hansjörg Rempp, Tobias Lindig, Holger Lerche, Ilka Kleffner, Melanie Henes and Marcel Dihné

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2013 13:185

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  26. Content type: Research article

    In the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS), the most important therapeutic aim of disease-modifying treatments (DMTs) is to prevent or postpone long-term disability. Given the typically slow progression obser...

    Authors: Kyle Fahrbach, Rachel Huelin, Amber L Martin, Edward Kim, Homa B Dastani, Stephen Rao and Manoj Malhotra

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2013 13:180

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  27. Content type: Research article

    Pediatric multiple sclerosis (MS) is a rare disorder with significant consequences. Quantitative MRI measurements may provide significant insights, however multicenter collaborative studies are needed given th...

    Authors: Tanuja Chitnis, Charles R Guttmann, Alexander Zaitsev, Alexander Musallam, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman, Ann Yeh, Moses Rodriguez, Jayne Ness, Mark P Gorman, Brian C Healy, Nancy Kuntz, Dorothee Chabas, Jonathan B Strober, Emmanuelle Waubant, Lauren Krupp, Daniel Pelletier…

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2013 13:173

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Leptin and adipocyte-fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) are produced by white adipose tissue and may play a role in chronic inflammation in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). To assess leptin and A-FABP in relapsing an...

    Authors: Silvia Messina, David Vargas-Lowy, Alexander Musallam, Brian C Healy, Pia Kivisakk, Roopali Gandhi, Riley Bove, Taha Gholipour, Samia Khoury, Howard L Weiner and Tanuja Chitnis

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2013 13:172

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  29. Content type: Research article

    Cognitive impairment and visual deterioration are two key clinical symptoms in MS and affect 50 to 80% of patients. Little is known about the influence of cognitive impairment on visual tests recommended for M...

    Authors: Laura Wieder, Gunnar Gäde, Luisa M Pech, Hanna Zimmermann, Klaus-Dieter Wernecke, Jan-Markus Dörr, Judith Bellmann-Strobl, Friedemann Paul and Alexander U Brandt

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2013 13:167

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  30. Content type: Research article

    Normally, chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) has been studied using echo-colour Doppler (ECD). Subjects are examined in the supine and sitting positions, in accordance with a static protocol wi...

    Authors: Massimiliano Farina, Eugenio Novelli and Raffaello Pagani

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2013 13:162

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  31. Content type: Research article

    There is no established noninvasive or invasive diagnostic imaging modality at present that can serve as a ‘gold standard’ or “benchmark” for the detection of the venous anomalies, indicative of chronic cerebr...

    Authors: Robert Zivadinov, Yuval Karmon, Kresimir Dolic, Jesper Hagemeier, Karen Marr, Vesela Valnarov, Cheryl L Kennedy, David Hojnacki, Ellen M Carl, L Nelson Hopkins, Elad I Levy, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman and Adnan H Siddiqui

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2013 13:151

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  32. Content type: Research article

    Glatiramer acetate (GA) and interferon-beta (IFN-β) are disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) for multiple sclerosis that are administered through subcutaneous (SC) or intramuscular (IM) injections. Skin reaction...

    Authors: Deepak MW Balak, Gerald JD Hengstman, Enes Hajdarbegovic, Rob JP van den Brule, Raymond MM Hupperts and Hok Bing Thio

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2013 13:146

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  33. Content type: Research article

    In 2002, the Transverse Myelitis Consortium Working Group (TMCWG) proposed the diagnostic criteria for idiopathic acute transverse myelitis (IATM) to delimit and unify this group of patients. This study aimed ...

    Authors: Álvaro Cobo Calvo, M Alba Mañé Martínez, Agustí Alentorn-Palau, Jordi Bruna Escuer, Lucía Romero Pinel and Sergio Martínez-Yélamos

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2013 13:135

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  34. Content type: Research article

    Patients with carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication may develop ongoing neurological and psychiatric symptoms that ebb and flow, a condition often called delayed encephalopathy (DE). The association between morpho...

    Authors: Hsiu-Ling Chen, Pei-Chin Chen, Cheng-Hsien Lu, Nai-Wen Hsu, Kun-Hsien Chou, Ching-Po Lin, Re-Wen Wu, Shau-Hsuan Li, Yu-Fan Cheng and Wei-Che Lin

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2013 13:129

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  35. Content type: Research article

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common cause of neurological disability in young adults worldwide and approximately half of those affected are in Europe. The assessment of differential incidence and preval...

    Authors: Elaine Kingwell, James J Marriott, Nathalie Jetté, Tamara Pringsheim, Naila Makhani, Sarah A Morrow, John D Fisk, Charity Evans, Sarah Gabrielle Béland, Sophie Kulaga, Jonathan Dykeman, Christina Wolfson, Marcus W Koch and Ruth Ann Marrie

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2013 13:128

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  36. Content type: Research article

    Among patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, relapses are associated with increased disability and decreased quality of life. Relapses are commonly treated with corticosteroids or left untreated...

    Authors: Molly Nickerson and Ruth Ann Marrie

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2013 13:119

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  37. Content type: Research article

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic, incurable, demyelinating disease that requires long-term treatment. Rates of non-adherence to prescribed therapy of up to 50% have been reported for chronic diseases. Strategie...

    Authors: Uwe K Zettl, Ulrike Bauer-Steinhusen, Thomas Glaser, Klaus Hechenbichler and Volker Limmroth

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2013 13:117

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  38. Content type: Review

    The possibility that retroviruses play a role in multiple sclerosis (MS) has long been considered; accumulating findings suggest this to be most likely in the form of human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs). A g...

    Authors: Kari K Nissen, Magdalena J Laska, Bettina Hansen, Thorkild Terkelsen, Palle Villesen, Shervin Bahrami, Thor Petersen, Finn S Pedersen and Bjørn A Nexø

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2013 13:111

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  39. Content type: Research article

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a devastating inflammatory disorder of the optic nerves and spinal cord characterized by frequently recurring exacerbations of humoral inflammation. NMO is associated with the hig...

    Authors: Harleen Saini, Robert Rifkin, Michael Gorelik, Hwa Huang, Zachary Ferguson, Melina V Jones and Michael Levy

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2013 13:104

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  40. Content type: Research article

    We investigated the association between chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) and cognitive impairment (CI) in multiple sclerosis (MS). Moreover, we evaluated the association between CCSVI and oth...

    Authors: Carmela Leone, Emanuele D’Amico, Sabina Cilia, Alessandra Nicoletti, Luigi Di Pino and Francesco Patti

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2013 13:97

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  41. Content type: Debate

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) has undergone a significant increase in incidence in the industrialised nations over the last 130 years. Changing environmental factors, possibly infections or a lack of or altered timi...

    Authors: Bernd Krone and John M Grange

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2013 13:91

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  42. Content type: Research article

    Recent evidence has indicated an association between chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) and multiple sclerosis. Small internal jugular veins (IJVs) (with a cross-sectional area of less than 0.4 cm

    Authors: Željko Krsmanović, Maja Živković, Toplica Lepić, Aleksandra Stanković, Ranko Raičević and Evica Dinčić

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2013 13:90

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  43. Content type: Research article

    Registry to Evaluate Novantrone Effects in Worsening Multiple Sclerosis (RENEW) was a 5-year, phase IV study in which the safety of Mitoxantrone was monitored in a patient cohort from the United States (US). T...

    Authors: Victor M Rivera, Douglas R Jeffery, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman, Daena Bock and Fernando Dangond

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2013 13:80

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  44. Content type: Research article

    This study aimed to correlate body mass index or biomarkers with the frequency of common adverse events (AEs) with subcutaneous IFN β-1a during treatment titration in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple...

    Authors: Delicias Muñoz, Antonio Escartín, Dolores Dapena, Francisco Coret, Dionisio Fernández-Uría, Domingo Pérez, Bonaventura Casanova, Cristina Guijarro-Castro, Elvira Munteis, María del-Campo Amigo, Robustiano Pego, Carmen Calles, César García-Rey, Nuria Monsalve and David Sánchez-Matienzo

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2013 13:82

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  45. Content type: Research article

    The majority of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients develop some form of lower urinary tract dysfunction, usually as a result of neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO). Patients identify urinary incontinence as o...

    Authors: David Bates, Jack Burks, Denise Globe, Manuel Signori, Stacie Hudgens, Pierre Denys, Scott MacDiarmid, Victor Nitti, Ib Odderson, Amy Perrin Ross and Michael Chancellor

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2013 13:78

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  46. Content type: Research article

    The association of HLA DRB1 alleles with susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (MS) has been consistently reported although its effect on the clinical features and disability is still unclear probably due to di...

    Authors: Renata Balnyte, Daiva Rastenyte, Antanas Vaitkus, Dalia Mickeviciene, Erika Skrodeniene, Astra Vitkauskiene and Ingrida Uloziene

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2013 13:77

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  47. Content type: Research article

    The disease course in multiple sclerosis (MS) is influenced by many factors, including age, sex, and sex hormones. Little is known about sex-specific changes in disease course around age 50, which may represen...

    Authors: Riley Bove, Alexander Musallam, Brian C Healy, Maria Houtchens, Bonnie I Glanz, Samia Khoury, Charles R Guttmann, Philip L De Jager and Tanuja Chitnis

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2013 13:73

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