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Demyelinating diseases

Section edited by Francesco Patti and Tjalf Ziemssen

This section covers all types of demyelinating diseases. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to, multiple sclerosis, neuroimmunology, systemic lupus, vasculitis, lymphoma, and myelitis.

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  1. Content type: Research article

    Cognitive impairment could affect quality of life for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), and cognitive function may be correlated with several factors such as depression and fatigue. This study aimed to ev...

    Authors: Masaaki Niino, Nobuhiro Mifune, Tatsuo Kohriyama, Masahiro Mori, Takashi Ohashi, Izumi Kawachi, Yuko Shimizu, Hikoaki Fukaura, Ichiro Nakashima, Susumu Kusunoki, Katsuichi Miyamoto, Kazuto Yoshida, Takashi Kanda, Kyoichi Nomura, Takashi Yamamura, Fumihito Yoshii…

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2014 14:3

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  2. Content type: Case report

    Encephalitis with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibodies (anti-NMDAR-Ab) is a rapid-onset encephalitis including psychosis, seizures, various movement disorders and autonomic system disturbances.

    Authors: Olivier Outteryck, Guillaume Baille, Jérôme Hodel, Marianne Giroux, Arnaud Lacour, Jérôme Honnorat, Hélène Zéphir and Patrick Vermersch

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2013 13:211

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a fatal demyelinating disease caused by JC virus (JCV), occurs mainly in immunocompromised patients. While JCV DNA is detected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)...

    Authors: Kazuo Nakamichi, Naoki Inoue, Toshio Shimokawa, Ichiro Kurane, Chang-Kweng Lim and Masayuki Saijo

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2013 13:200

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  4. Content type: Case report

    Susac’s Syndrome (SS) consists of the triad of encephalopathy, branch retinal artery occlusions (BRAO) and hearing loss (HL). Histopathologically, SS is characterised by a microangiopathy, and some observation...

    Authors: Maik Engeholm, Beate Leo-Kottler, Hansjörg Rempp, Tobias Lindig, Holger Lerche, Ilka Kleffner, Melanie Henes and Marcel Dihné

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2013 13:185

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  5. Content type: Research article

    In the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS), the most important therapeutic aim of disease-modifying treatments (DMTs) is to prevent or postpone long-term disability. Given the typically slow progression obser...

    Authors: Kyle Fahrbach, Rachel Huelin, Amber L Martin, Edward Kim, Homa B Dastani, Stephen Rao and Manoj Malhotra

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2013 13:180

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Pediatric multiple sclerosis (MS) is a rare disorder with significant consequences. Quantitative MRI measurements may provide significant insights, however multicenter collaborative studies are needed given th...

    Authors: Tanuja Chitnis, Charles R Guttmann, Alexander Zaitsev, Alexander Musallam, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman, Ann Yeh, Moses Rodriguez, Jayne Ness, Mark P Gorman, Brian C Healy, Nancy Kuntz, Dorothee Chabas, Jonathan B Strober, Emmanuelle Waubant, Lauren Krupp, Daniel Pelletier…

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2013 13:173

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  7. Content type: Research article

    Leptin and adipocyte-fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) are produced by white adipose tissue and may play a role in chronic inflammation in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). To assess leptin and A-FABP in relapsing an...

    Authors: Silvia Messina, David Vargas-Lowy, Alexander Musallam, Brian C Healy, Pia Kivisakk, Roopali Gandhi, Riley Bove, Taha Gholipour, Samia Khoury, Howard L Weiner and Tanuja Chitnis

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2013 13:172

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  8. Content type: Research article

    Cognitive impairment and visual deterioration are two key clinical symptoms in MS and affect 50 to 80% of patients. Little is known about the influence of cognitive impairment on visual tests recommended for M...

    Authors: Laura Wieder, Gunnar Gäde, Luisa M Pech, Hanna Zimmermann, Klaus-Dieter Wernecke, Jan-Markus Dörr, Judith Bellmann-Strobl, Friedemann Paul and Alexander U Brandt

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2013 13:167

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Normally, chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) has been studied using echo-colour Doppler (ECD). Subjects are examined in the supine and sitting positions, in accordance with a static protocol wi...

    Authors: Massimiliano Farina, Eugenio Novelli and Raffaello Pagani

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2013 13:162

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  10. Content type: Research article

    There is no established noninvasive or invasive diagnostic imaging modality at present that can serve as a ‘gold standard’ or “benchmark” for the detection of the venous anomalies, indicative of chronic cerebr...

    Authors: Robert Zivadinov, Yuval Karmon, Kresimir Dolic, Jesper Hagemeier, Karen Marr, Vesela Valnarov, Cheryl L Kennedy, David Hojnacki, Ellen M Carl, L Nelson Hopkins, Elad I Levy, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman and Adnan H Siddiqui

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2013 13:151

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Glatiramer acetate (GA) and interferon-beta (IFN-β) are disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) for multiple sclerosis that are administered through subcutaneous (SC) or intramuscular (IM) injections. Skin reaction...

    Authors: Deepak MW Balak, Gerald JD Hengstman, Enes Hajdarbegovic, Rob JP van den Brule, Raymond MM Hupperts and Hok Bing Thio

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2013 13:146

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  12. Content type: Research article

    In 2002, the Transverse Myelitis Consortium Working Group (TMCWG) proposed the diagnostic criteria for idiopathic acute transverse myelitis (IATM) to delimit and unify this group of patients. This study aimed ...

    Authors: Álvaro Cobo Calvo, M Alba Mañé Martínez, Agustí Alentorn-Palau, Jordi Bruna Escuer, Lucía Romero Pinel and Sergio Martínez-Yélamos

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2013 13:135

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  13. Content type: Research article

    Patients with carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication may develop ongoing neurological and psychiatric symptoms that ebb and flow, a condition often called delayed encephalopathy (DE). The association between morpho...

    Authors: Hsiu-Ling Chen, Pei-Chin Chen, Cheng-Hsien Lu, Nai-Wen Hsu, Kun-Hsien Chou, Ching-Po Lin, Re-Wen Wu, Shau-Hsuan Li, Yu-Fan Cheng and Wei-Che Lin

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2013 13:129

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  14. Content type: Research article

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common cause of neurological disability in young adults worldwide and approximately half of those affected are in Europe. The assessment of differential incidence and preval...

    Authors: Elaine Kingwell, James J Marriott, Nathalie Jetté, Tamara Pringsheim, Naila Makhani, Sarah A Morrow, John D Fisk, Charity Evans, Sarah Gabrielle Béland, Sophie Kulaga, Jonathan Dykeman, Christina Wolfson, Marcus W Koch and Ruth Ann Marrie

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2013 13:128

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  15. Content type: Research article

    Among patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, relapses are associated with increased disability and decreased quality of life. Relapses are commonly treated with corticosteroids or left untreated...

    Authors: Molly Nickerson and Ruth Ann Marrie

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2013 13:119

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic, incurable, demyelinating disease that requires long-term treatment. Rates of non-adherence to prescribed therapy of up to 50% have been reported for chronic diseases. Strategie...

    Authors: Uwe K Zettl, Ulrike Bauer-Steinhusen, Thomas Glaser, Klaus Hechenbichler and Volker Limmroth

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2013 13:117

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  17. Content type: Review

    The possibility that retroviruses play a role in multiple sclerosis (MS) has long been considered; accumulating findings suggest this to be most likely in the form of human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs). A g...

    Authors: Kari K Nissen, Magdalena J Laska, Bettina Hansen, Thorkild Terkelsen, Palle Villesen, Shervin Bahrami, Thor Petersen, Finn S Pedersen and Bjørn A Nexø

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2013 13:111

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  18. Content type: Research article

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a devastating inflammatory disorder of the optic nerves and spinal cord characterized by frequently recurring exacerbations of humoral inflammation. NMO is associated with the hig...

    Authors: Harleen Saini, Robert Rifkin, Michael Gorelik, Hwa Huang, Zachary Ferguson, Melina V Jones and Michael Levy

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2013 13:104

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  19. Content type: Research article

    We investigated the association between chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) and cognitive impairment (CI) in multiple sclerosis (MS). Moreover, we evaluated the association between CCSVI and oth...

    Authors: Carmela Leone, Emanuele D’Amico, Sabina Cilia, Alessandra Nicoletti, Luigi Di Pino and Francesco Patti

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2013 13:97

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  20. Content type: Debate

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) has undergone a significant increase in incidence in the industrialised nations over the last 130 years. Changing environmental factors, possibly infections or a lack of or altered timi...

    Authors: Bernd Krone and John M Grange

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2013 13:91

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Recent evidence has indicated an association between chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) and multiple sclerosis. Small internal jugular veins (IJVs) (with a cross-sectional area of less than 0.4 cm

    Authors: Željko Krsmanović, Maja Živković, Toplica Lepić, Aleksandra Stanković, Ranko Raičević and Evica Dinčić

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2013 13:90

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  22. Content type: Research article

    This study aimed to correlate body mass index or biomarkers with the frequency of common adverse events (AEs) with subcutaneous IFN β-1a during treatment titration in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple...

    Authors: Delicias Muñoz, Antonio Escartín, Dolores Dapena, Francisco Coret, Dionisio Fernández-Uría, Domingo Pérez, Bonaventura Casanova, Cristina Guijarro-Castro, Elvira Munteis, María del-Campo Amigo, Robustiano Pego, Carmen Calles, César García-Rey, Nuria Monsalve and David Sánchez-Matienzo

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2013 13:82

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  23. Content type: Research article

    Registry to Evaluate Novantrone Effects in Worsening Multiple Sclerosis (RENEW) was a 5-year, phase IV study in which the safety of Mitoxantrone was monitored in a patient cohort from the United States (US). T...

    Authors: Victor M Rivera, Douglas R Jeffery, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman, Daena Bock and Fernando Dangond

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2013 13:80

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  24. Content type: Research article

    The majority of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients develop some form of lower urinary tract dysfunction, usually as a result of neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO). Patients identify urinary incontinence as o...

    Authors: David Bates, Jack Burks, Denise Globe, Manuel Signori, Stacie Hudgens, Pierre Denys, Scott MacDiarmid, Victor Nitti, Ib Odderson, Amy Perrin Ross and Michael Chancellor

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2013 13:78

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  25. Content type: Research article

    The association of HLA DRB1 alleles with susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (MS) has been consistently reported although its effect on the clinical features and disability is still unclear probably due to di...

    Authors: Renata Balnyte, Daiva Rastenyte, Antanas Vaitkus, Dalia Mickeviciene, Erika Skrodeniene, Astra Vitkauskiene and Ingrida Uloziene

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2013 13:77

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  26. Content type: Research article

    The disease course in multiple sclerosis (MS) is influenced by many factors, including age, sex, and sex hormones. Little is known about sex-specific changes in disease course around age 50, which may represen...

    Authors: Riley Bove, Alexander Musallam, Brian C Healy, Maria Houtchens, Bonnie I Glanz, Samia Khoury, Charles R Guttmann, Philip L De Jager and Tanuja Chitnis

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2013 13:73

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  27. Content type: Research article

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) shows various brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities with recurrent central nervous system (CNS) attacks, although predominantly affecting the spinal cord and optic ner...

    Authors: Chen Cheng, Ying Jiang, Xiaohong Chen, Yongqiang Dai, Zhuang Kang, Zhengqi Lu, Fuhua Peng and Xueqiang Hu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2013 13:72

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  28. Content type: Study protocol

    Despite the commonly known benefits of exercise and physical activity evidence shows that persons Multiple Sclerosis (MS) are relatively inactive yet physical activity may be even more important in a populatio...

    Authors: Nancy E Mayo, Mark Bayley, Pierre Duquette, Yves Lapierre, Ross Anderson and Susan Bartlett

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2013 13:69

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  29. Content type: Research article

    Flu-like symptoms (FLS) are common side effects of interferon beta (IFN-β) treatment in patients with Multiple Sclerosis (PwMS) and are associated with post-injection cytokine surge. We hypothesized that vitam...

    Authors: Daniel Golan, Basheer Halhal, Lea Glass-Marmor, Elsebeth Staun-Ram, Orit Rozenberg, Idit Lavi, Sara Dishon, Mira Barak, Sophia Ish-Shalom and Ariel Miller

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2013 13:60

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  30. Content type: Research article

    A debate surrounding multiple sclerosis epidemiology has centred on time-related incidence increases and the need of monitoring. The purpose of this study is to reassess multiple sclerosis incidence in the Eur...

    Authors: Enrique Alcalde-Cabero, Javier Almazán-Isla, Antonio García-Merino, Joao de Sá and Jesús de Pedro-Cuesta

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2013 13:58

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  31. Content type: Research article

    The study of muscle metabolism by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been poorly implemented in multiple sclerosis (MS). Aims of the study were to compare resting muscle oxygen consumption (rmVO2) at gastrocne...

    Authors: Anna Maria Malagoni, Michele Felisatti, Nicola Lamberti, Nino Basaglia, Roberto Manfredini, Fabrizio Salvi, Paolo Zamboni and Fabio Manfredini

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2013 13:52

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  32. Content type: Research article

    The aetiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) remains unknown. This hampers molecular diagnosis and the discovery of bio-molecular markers. Consequently, MS diagnostic procedures are complex and criteria for assess...

    Authors: Roberto De Masi, Sergio Pasca, Rocco Scarpello, Adele Idolo and Antonella De Donno

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2013 13:45

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  33. Content type: Research article

    The Patient Determined Disease Steps (PDDS) is a promising patient-reported outcome (PRO) of disability in multiple sclerosis (MS). To date, there is limited evidence regarding the validity of PDDS scores, des...

    Authors: Yvonne C Learmonth, Robert W Motl, Brian M Sandroff, John H Pula and Diego Cadavid

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2013 13:37

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  34. Content type: Research article

    Some recent experimental data suggest a possible role of LINGO-1 in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). In an attempt to identify genetic biomarkers related to MS susceptibility, we genotyped two comm...

    Authors: Elena García-Martín, Oswaldo Lorenzo-Betancor, Carmen Martínez, Pau Pastor, Julián Benito-León, Jorge Millán-Pascual, Patricia Calleja, María Díaz-Sánchez, Diana Pisa, Laura Turpín-Fenoll, Hortensia Alonso-Navarro, Lucía Ayuso-Peralta, Dolores Torrecillas, Elena Lorenzo, José Francisco Plaza-Nieto, José A G Agúndez…

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2013 13:34

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  35. Content type: Research article

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) includes transverse myelitis, optic neuritis and brain lesions. Recent studies have indicated that the brainstem is an important site of attack in NMO. Longitudinally extensive trans...

    Authors: Nasrin Asgari, Hanne Pernille Bro Skejoe, Soeren Thue Lillevang, Troels Steenstrup, Egon Stenager and Kirsten Ohm Kyvik

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2013 13:33

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  36. Content type: Research article

    This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and clinical relevance of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and healthy controls using extra- and intracrania...

    Authors: Roberta Lanzillo, Marcello Mancini, Raffaele Liuzzi, Orlando Di Donato, Elena Salvatore, Valentina Maglio, Giovanni Vacca, Luca Amato, Gennaro D’Anna, Arturo Brunetti and Vincenzo Brescia Morra

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2013 13:20

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  37. Content type: Research article

    To improve quality of life (QOL) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), it is important to decrease disability and prevent relapse. The aim of this study was to examine the causal and mutual relationships c...

    Authors: Hiromi Kikuchi, Nobuhiro Mifune, Masaaki Niino, Jun-ichi Kira, Tatsuo Kohriyama, Kohei Ota, Masami Tanaka, Hirofumi Ochi, Shunya Nakane and Seiji Kikuchi

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2013 13:10

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  38. Content type: Research article

    Few studies have systematically addressed the role of epidural analgesia and caesarean delivery in predicting the post-partum disease activity in women with Multiple Sclerosis (MS).

    Authors: Luisa Pastò, Emilio Portaccio, Angelo Ghezzi, Bahia Hakiki, Marta Giannini, Lorenzo Razzolini, Elisa Piscolla, Laura De Giglio, Carlo Pozzilli, Damiano Paolicelli, Maria Trojano, Maria Giovanna Marrosu, Francesco Patti, Loredana La Mantia, Gian Luigi Mancardi, Claudio Solaro…

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2012 12:165

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  39. Content type: Research article

    Physical disability in multiple sclerosis (MS) is frequently characterized by impaired ambulation. Although walking tests have been successfully employed to assess walking ability in MS patients, data analytic...

    Authors: Janina M Burschka, Philipp M Keune, Uwe Menge, Ulrich Hofstadt-van Oy, Patrick Oschmann and Olaf Hoos

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2012 12:161

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  40. Content type: Study protocol

    Nerve damage in leprosy often causes disabilities and deformities. Prednisolone is used to treat nerve function impairment (NFI). However, optimal dose and duration of prednisolone treatment has not been estab...

    Authors: Inge Wagenaar, Wim Brandsma, Erik Post, Wim van Brakel, Diana Lockwood, Peter Nicholls, Paul Saunderson, Cairns Smith, Einar Wilder-Smith and Jan Hendrik Richardus

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2012 12:159

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  41. Content type: Research article

    In patients with relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), subcutaneous (sc) interferon (IFN)β-1a and IFNβ-1b have been shown to reduce relapse rates. A formulation of IFNβ-1a has been produced without fe...

    Authors: Barry Singer, Daniel Bandari, Mark Cascione, Christopher LaGanke, John Huddlestone, Randy Bennett and Fernando Dangond

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2012 12:154

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  42. Content type: Research article

    Only few studies have assessed safety of in utero exposure to glatiramer acetate (GA). Following a previous study assessing the safety of interferon beta (IFNB) pregnancy exposure in multiple sclerosis (MS), w...

    Authors: Marta Giannini, Emilio Portaccio, Angelo Ghezzi, Bahia Hakiki, Luisa Pastò, Lorenzo Razzolini, Elisa Piscolla, Laura De Giglio, Carlo Pozzilli, Damiano Paolicelli, Maria Trojano, Maria Giovanna Marrosu, Francesco Patti, Loredana La Mantia, Gianluigi Mancardi, Claudio Solaro…

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2012 12:124

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  43. Content type: Research article

    Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a rare but fatal demyelinating disease caused by JC virus (JCV), occurs mainly in immunocompromised patients. As PML develops in individuals with various under...

    Authors: Kazuo Nakamichi, Hidehiro Mizusawa, Masahito Yamada, Shuji Kishida, Yoshiharu Miura, Toshio Shimokawa, Tomohiko Takasaki, Chang-Kweng Lim, Ichiro Kurane and Masayuki Saijo

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2012 12:121

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  44. Content type: Research article

    In previous studies we found that MHC2TA +1614 genotype frequency was very different when MS patients with and without human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) in serum samples were compared; a different clinical behavior ...

    Authors: Maria Inmaculada Dominguez-Mozo, Marta Garcia-Montojo, Virginia De Las Heras, Angel Garcia-Martinez, Ana Maria Arias-Leal, Ignacio Casanova, Rafael Arroyo and Roberto Alvarez-Lafuente

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2012 12:107

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  45. Content type: Research article

    We noticed that a hypothesis based on the effect of geomagnetic disturbances (GMD) has the ability to explain special features of multiple sclerosis (MS). Areas around geomagnetic 60 degree latitude (GM60L) ex...

    Authors: Seyed Aidin Sajedi and Fahimeh Abdollahi

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2012 12:100

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  46. Content type: Research article

    The balance between T helper cells Th2- and Th1-related cytokines plays a key role in multiple sclerosis (MS). A shift from a Th1 towards a Th2 cytokine profile could have a beneficial effect on the clinical c...

    Authors: Celia Oreja-Guevara, Jaime Ramos-Cejudo, Luiz Stark Aroeira, Beatriz Chamorro and Exuperio Diez-Tejedor

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2012 12:95

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  47. Content type: Research article

    Compensation of brain injury in multiple sclerosis (MS) may in part work through mechanisms involving neuronal plasticity on local and interregional scales. Mechanisms limiting excessive neuronal activity may ...

    Authors: Daniel Zeller, Su-Yin Dang, David Weise, Peter Rieckmann, Klaus V Toyka and Joseph Classen

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2012 12:92

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