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Movement disorders

This section covers all types and aspects of movement disorders. Topics of include, but are not limited to, Parkinson's Disease, transcranial magnetic stimulation, spasticity, dyskinesia, movement disorders, rehabilitation and spinal cord injury.

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  1. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder. Reduced balance is one of the cardinal symptoms of PD, predisposing people living with PD to experience difficulties with the execution of ...

    Authors: Sofie LaGrone, Conran Joseph, Hanna Johansson, Birgit Enberg and Erika Franzén

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2020 20:50

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Both Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) and Continuous intrajejunal Levodopa Infusion (CLI) are effective therapies for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD). To our knowledge, no direct head-to-head comparison ...

    Authors: D. van Poppelen, V. Sisodia, R. J. de Haan, M. G. W. Dijkgraaf, P. R. Schuurman, G. J. Geurtsen, A. E. M. Berk, R. M. A. de Bie and J. M. Dijk

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2020 20:40

    Content type: Study protocol

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  3. Alexander disease is a rare neurological disease characterized by progressive spastic quadriparesis and bulbar palsy. Moreover, certain patients with adult-onset Alexander disease were often misdiagnosed as ot...

    Authors: Jongkyu Park, Sung-Tae Park, Jieun Kim and Kyum-Yil Kwon

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2020 20:27

    Content type: Case report

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  4. Parkinson’s disease (PD) and atypical parkinsonisms (APD) have overlapping symptoms challenging an early diagnosis. Diagnostic accuracy is important because PD and APD have different prognosis and response to ...

    Authors: Anna Santaella, H. Bea Kuiperij, Anouke van Rumund, Rianne A. J. Esselink, Alain J. van Gool, Bastiaan R. Bloem and Marcel M. Verbeek

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2020 20:26

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative movement disorder that is characterized by motor symptoms such as tremor, rigidity, slowness of movement and problems with gait. Large-scale meta-ana...

    Authors: Hui Wu, Hui Li, Zhiqiang Shi, Jiajia Tang, Shuya Mei, Tianyi Ai and Zhenzhou He

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2020 20:19

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Pain is a common problem for individuals with cerebral palsy (CP). In Sweden, 95% of children and adolescents with CP are followed in a national follow-up programme (CPUP), which includes data on pain. The pur...

    Authors: Elsa Eriksson, Gunnar Hägglund and Ann I. Alriksson-Schmidt

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2020 20:15

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Active Rehabilitation (AR) is a community peer-based concept for people with spinal cord injury (SCI) that is primarily delivered through brief residential training programmes. Despite a plethora of positive a...

    Authors: Anestis Divanoglou, Tomasz Tasiemski and Sophie Jörgensen

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2020 20:14

    Content type: Study protocol

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  8. Huntington’s disease (HD) is a rare, genetic, neurodegenerative and ultimately fatal disease with no cure or progression-delaying treatment currently available. HD is characterized by a triad of cognitive, beh...

    Authors: Christoph Ohlmeier, Kai-Uwe Saum, Wolfgang Galetzka, Dominik Beier and Holger Gothe

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:318

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Huntington’s disease (HD) is a progressive, neurological disorder that results in both cognitive and physical impairments. These impairments affect an individual’s gait and, as the disease progresses, it signi...

    Authors: Helia Mahzoun Alzakerin, Yannis Halkiadakis and Kristin D. Morgan

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:316

    Content type: Research article

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  10. The mechanisms underlying the online modulation of motor speech in Parkinson’s disease (PD) have not been determined. Moreover, medical and rehabilitation interventions for PD-associated motor speech disorder ...

    Authors: Ying Liu, Yuchang Gui, Jincui Hu, Shanshan Liang, Sixia Mo, Yuanfang Zhou, Yujian Li, Fengkun Zhou and Jianwen Xu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:309

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP) is the most frequent form of atypical Parkinsonism. Although there is preliminary evidence for the benefits of gait rehabilitation, balance training and oculomotor exercise...

    Authors: Susan C. Slade, Martin Underwood, Jennifer L. McGinley and Meg E. Morris

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:305

    Content type: Research article

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  12. McLeod syndrome is a rare X-linked recessive acanthocytosis associated with neurological manifestations including progressive chorea, cognitive impairment, psychiatric disturbances, seizures, and sensorimotor ...

    Authors: Takenobu Murakami, Dan Abe, Hideyuki Matsumoto, Ryo Tokimura, Mitsunari Abe, Amanda Tiksnadi, Shunsuke Kobayashi, Chikako Kaneko, Yuka Urata, Masayuki Nakamura, Akira Sano and Yoshikazu Ugawa

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:301

    Content type: Case report

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  13. Parkinson’s disease (PD) affects many physiological systems essential for balance control. Recent studies suggest that intensive and cognitively demanding physical exercise programs are capable of inducing pla...

    Authors: Erika Franzén, Hanna Johansson, Malin Freidle, Urban Ekman, Martin Benka Wallén, Ellika Schalling, Alexander Lebedev, Martin Lövdén, Staffan Holmin, Per Svenningsson and Maria Hagströmer

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:280

    Content type: Study protocol

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  14. Wilson disease (WD) is genetically induced failure of copper metabolism which can be successfully treated with pharmacological agents. The prognosis for survival in most WD patients is favorable if diagnosis a...

    Authors: Wojciech Masełbas, Anna Członkowska, Tomasz Litwin and Maciej Niewada

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:278

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) is a complex disease, whose exact cause remains unclear. A wide range of risk factors has been proposed that helps understanding potential disease pa...

    Authors: Eliana M. Lacerda, Keith Geraghty, Caroline C. Kingdon, Luigi Palla and Luis Nacul

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:275

    Content type: Research article

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  16. In the nineteenth century, Jean Martin Charcot explained functional neurological disorder (formerly called conversion disorder) as a “psychodynamic” lesion. Numerous advances in neuroimaging have permitted ide...

    Authors: Silvio Galli, Selma Aybek, Sylvie Chokron, Thierry Moulin and Eloi Magnin

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:270

    Content type: Case report

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  17. Progressive neurological diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, significantly interfere with patients’ lives, and those of their families. The aim of the research was ...

    Authors: Radka Bužgová and Radka Kozáková

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:250

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Patients with functional motor disorder (FMD) experience persistent and disabling neurological symptoms such as weakness, tremor, dystonia and disordered gait. Physiotherapy is usually considered an important ...

    Authors: Glenn Nielsen, Jon Stone, Marta Buszewicz, Alan Carson, Laura H. Goldstein, Kate Holt, Rachael Hunter, Jonathan Marsden, Louise Marston, Hayley Noble, Markus Reuber and Mark J. Edwards

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:242

    Content type: Study protocol

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  19. Non motor symptoms (NMS) of Parkinson’s disease (PD) are common and can be more disabling than motor symptoms. Sleep disorders can be seen in up to 98% of patients with Parkinson disease. Poor sleep quality ha...

    Authors: Dereje Melka, Abenet Tafesse, James H. Bower and Demeke Assefa

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:205

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Stroke is the second-leading global cause of death behind heart disease in 2013 and is a major cause of permanent disability. The burden of stroke in terms of mortality, morbidity and disability is increasing ...

    Authors: Ginenus Fekadu, Legese Chelkeba and Ayantu Kebede

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:187

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a serious, often irreversible movement disorder caused by prolonged exposure to antipsychotics; identifying patients at risk for TD is critical to preventing it. Predictive models fo...

    Authors: Oscar Patterson-Lomba, Rajeev Ayyagari and Benjamin Carroll

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:174

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a life-changing experience for the individuals with SCI and their families. This study aimed to investigate physical strategies used for overcoming physical disability in individual...

    Authors: Alireza Nikbakht-Nasrabadi, Nooredin Mohammadi, Manijeh Yazdanshenas and Maryam Shabany

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:171

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Our understanding of the etiology, pathophysiology, phenotypic diversity, and progression of Parkinson’s disease has stagnated. Consequently, patients do not receive the best care, leading to unnecessary disab...

    Authors: B. R. Bloem, W. J. Marks Jr., A. L. Silva de Lima, M. L. Kuijf, T. van Laar, B. P. F. Jacobs, M. M. Verbeek, R. C. Helmich, B. P. van de Warrenburg, L. J. W. Evers, J. intHout, T. van de Zande, T. M. Snyder, R. Kapur and M. J. Meinders

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:160

    Content type: Study protocol

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  24. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) is the most common subtype among the autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias, a group of neurodegenerative disorders for which currently no disease-specific therapy is availa...

    Authors: Roderick P. P. W. M. Maas, Ivan Toni, Jonne Doorduin, Thomas Klockgether, Dennis J. L. G. Schutter and Bart P. C. van de Warrenburg

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:149

    Content type: Study protocol

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  25. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases. Patients suffer from a variety of motor and non-motor symptoms that severely affect their daily lives and quality of life. In many...

    Authors: Carolin Siegert, Björn Hauptmann, Nicole Jochems, Andreas Schrader and Ruth Deck

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:143

    Content type: Study protocol

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Neurology 2019 19:199

  26. Dystonia is a movement disorder substantially affecting the quality of life and the ability to work. A proportion of patients does not respond to first line pharmacotherapy. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is est...

    Authors: Rebekka M. Ortiz, Filip Scheperjans and Eero Pekkonen

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:137

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Diabetic chorea appears during the course of poorly-controlled diabetes. While chorea associated with diabetes mellitus usually occurs during hyperglycemic episodes, hypoglycemia can also cause diabetic chorea...

    Authors: Eriko Matsushima, Hiroshi Shiota, Kentaro Watanabe, Yuichiro Otsuka, Midori Yamana, Suguru Yamaguchi, Fujiko Egashira, Satoshi Kamei and Hisamitsu Ishihara

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:131

    Content type: Case report

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  28. Clinical diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease (PD) has always lagged behind clinical symptoms. The diagnostic latency might be influenced by many factors. The diagnostic latency of Chinese people with PD has been ...

    Authors: Ying Wan, Yingying Zhu, Yi Luo, Xun Han, Yongsheng Li, Jing Gan, Na Wu, Anmu Xie and Zhenguo Liu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:120

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Toxic oligomeric α-synuclein (αS; O-αS) has been suggested to play a central role in the pathogenesis of Lewy body diseases such as Parkinson’s disease (PD). Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of αS, O-αS, total...

    Authors: Hidetomo Murakami, Takahiko Tokuda, Omar M. A. El-Agnaf, Takuma Ohmichi, Ayako Miki, Hideaki Ohashi, Yoshiyuki Owan, Yu Saito, Satoshi Yano, Tamao Tsukie, Takeshi Ikeuchi and Kenjiro Ono

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:113

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) affects 1–2% of people over 60 years of age and presents a high risk of developing a neurodegenerative disorder from the group of synucleinopathies,...

    Authors: Jitka Bušková, Pavla Peřinová, Eva Miletínová, Petr Dušek, Evžen Růžička, Karel Šonka and David Kemlink

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:110

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Apathy is a prominent non-motor symptom in Parkinson’s disease (PD). People with apathy show a lack of emotion, passion, and motivation. Between 17 and 70% of persons with PD have apathy; the extreme heterogen...

    Authors: Bria Mele, Zahra Goodarzi, Heather M. Hanson and Jayna Holroyd-Leduc

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:101

    Content type: Research article

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  32. This pilot study was to examine the feasibility and tolerance of whole body vibration therapy (WBVT) for children and adults with moderate severity of cerebral palsy (CP) being graded as levels III or IV on th...

    Authors: Tamis W. Pin, Penelope B. Butler and Sheila Purves

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:80

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Huntington’s disease (HD) is a rare, genetic neurodegenerative disorder often presenting with emotional, cognitive and behavioral abnormalities before manifestation of disease defining motor symptoms. Cognitiv...

    Authors: Sebastian Michels, Hans-Georg Buchholz, Florian Rosar, Isabel Heinrich, Manuela A. Hoffmann, Susann Schweiger, Oliver Tüscher and Mathias Schreckenberger

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:78

    Content type: Case report

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  34. Parkinson’s disease is a complex neurological disorder characterized by a variety of motor- as well as non-motor symptoms. Video-based technology (using continuous home monitoring) may bridge the gap between t...

    Authors: N. M. de Vries, K. Smilowska, J. Hummelink, B. Abramiuc, M. M. van Gilst, B. R. Bloem, P. H. N. de With and S. Overeem

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:71

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Gait Initiation (GI) is a functional task that challenges the balance control requiring weight shift and a transition from standing to walking. Individuals with Down Syndrome (DS) walk with low velocity, prolo...

    Authors: Carolina Corsi, Veronica Cimolin, Paolo Capodaglio, Claudia Condoluci and Manuela Galli

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:66

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Dopaminergic neuronal loss begins years before motor symptoms appear in Parkinson disease (PD). Thus, reliable biomarkers for early diagnosis and prognosis of PD are an essential pre-requisite to develop disea...

    Authors: Dilini Rathnayake, Thashi Chang and Preethi Udagama

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:56

    Content type: Research article

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  37. There are currently no standard diagnostic criteria for characterizing advanced Parkinson’s disease (APD) in clinical practice, a critical component in determining ongoing clinical care and therapeutic strateg...

    Authors: Alfonso Fasano, Victor S. C. Fung, Leonardo Lopiano, Bulent Elibol, Irina G. Smolentseva, Klaus Seppi, Annamária Takáts, Koray Onuk, Juan Carlos Parra, Lars Bergmann, Kavita Sail, Yash Jalundhwala and Zvezdan Pirtosek

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:50

    Content type: Research article

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  38. The prevalence of Restless legs syndrome (RLS) in End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) patients is higher than that in the general population. However, the associations of RLS within the ESRD population are inconsis...

    Authors: Xiao-Wei Lin, Jun-Fang Zhang, Meng-Yao Qiu, Ling-Yan Ni, Hong-Lei Yu, Sheng-Han Kuo, William G. Ondo, Qing Yu and Yun-Cheng Wu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:47

    Content type: Research article

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  39. We aimed to produce a detailed neuropathological analysis of pyramidal motor system pathology and provide its clinical pathological correlation in cases with definite progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP).

    Authors: Zuzana Stejskalova, Zdenek Rohan, Robert Rusina, Adam Tesar, Jaromir Kukal, Gabor G. Kovacs, Ales Bartos and Radoslav Matej

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:42

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Currently there are no disease-modifying treatments for Parkinson’s disease dementia (PDD), a condition linked to aggregation of the protein α-synuclein in subcortical and cortical brain areas. One of the lead...

    Authors: C. R. A. Silveira, J. MacKinley, K. Coleman, Z. Li, E. Finger, R. Bartha, S. A. Morrow, J. Wells, M. Borrie, R. G. Tirona, C. A. Rupar, G. Zou, R. A. Hegele, D. Mahuran, P. MacDonald, M. E. Jenkins…

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:20

    Content type: Study protocol

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  41. Dopamine agonists (DAs) are efficacious for the treatment of motor and nonmotor symptoms in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). The treatment of PD with DAs is often complicated by adverse drug reactions (...

    Authors: Piao Zhang, Yan Li, Kun Nie, Lijuan Wang and Yuhu Zhang

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2018 18:221

    Content type: Case report

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  42. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic progressive disorder leading to increasing disability. While the symptoms and needs of patients in the early stages of their disease are well characterized, little informa...

    Authors: Monika Balzer-Geldsetzer, Joaquim Ferreira, Per Odin, Bastiaan R. Bloem, Wassilios G. Meissner, Stefan Lorenzl, Michael Wittenberg, Richard Dodel and Anette Schrag

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2018 18:185

    Content type: Study protocol

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  43. Progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus (PERM) syndrome is a rare neurological condition. Its clinical characteristics include axial and limb muscle rigidity, myoclonus, painful spasms and hy...

    Authors: Aurélie Degeneffe, Marie Dagonnier, Alain D’hondt and Jose Antonio Elosegi

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2018 18:173

    Content type: Case report

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  44. Autonomic nervous system dysfunction, common in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD), causes significant morbidity and it is correlated with poor quality of life. To assess frequency of urinary symptoms in p...

    Authors: Francesca Valentino, Tommaso Vincenzo Bartolotta, Giuseppe Cosentino, Sergio Mastrilli, Valentina Arnao, Paolo Aridon, Salvatore Scurria, Alice Pavone, Carlo Pavone and Marco D’Amelio

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2018 18:148

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Ocular neuromyotonia (ONM) is characterized by episodic diplopia, which is usually triggered by prolonged eccentric gaze of the affected extraocular muscles. The spell is characterized by involuntary, occasion...

    Authors: Tanyatuth Padungkiatsagul, Panitha Jindahra, Anuchit Poonyathalang, Narong Samipak and Kavin Vanikieti

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2018 18:137

    Content type: Case report

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  46. Neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (nOH) results from impaired vasoconstriction due to dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system and is commonly associated with Parkinson disease (PD), multiple system atroph...

    Authors: Daniel O. Claassen, Charles H. Adler, L. Arthur Hewitt and Christopher Gibbons

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2018 18:125

    Content type: Research article

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