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Movement disorders

This section covers all types and aspects of movement disorders. Topics of include, but are not limited to, Parkinson's Disease, transcranial magnetic stimulation, spasticity, dyskinesia, movement disorders, rehabilitation and spinal cord injury.

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  1. Palato-pharyngo-laryngeal myoclonus, a variant of palatal myoclonus, is characterized by involuntary rhythmic movements of palatal, pharyngeal, and laryngeal muscles. Symptomatic palatal myoclonus is classical...

    Authors: Jamie L. Fleet, Ronelle Calver, Gihan C. Perera and Zhihui Deng

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2020 20:222

    Content type: Case report

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  2. We investigated the gait characteristics of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD), under free-living conditions, using a wearable device, and assessed their relationships with global cognitive function and mo...

    Authors: Hiroo Terashi, Takeshi Taguchi, Yuki Ueta, Yoshihiko Okubo, Hiroshi Mitoma and Hitoshi Aizawa

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2020 20:161

    Content type: Research article

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  3. The “hot cross bun” (HCB) sign, a cruciform hyperintensity in the pons on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), has gradually been identified as a typical finding in multiple system atrophy, cerebellar-type (MSA-C...

    Authors: Atsuhiko Sugiyama, Hajime Yokota, Yoshitaka Yamanaka, Hiroki Mukai, Tatsuya Yamamoto, Shigeki Hirano, Kyosuke Koide, Shoichi Ito and Satoshi Kuwabara

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2020 20:157

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Heart rate variability (HRV) decreases in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and it can be considered a marker for cardiovascular dysautonomia. The purpose of this pilot study is to evaluate long-term time-domain analys...

    Authors: V. Arnao, A. Cinturino, S. Mastrilli, C. Buttà, C. Maida, A. Tuttolomondo, P. Aridon and M. D’Amelio

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2020 20:152

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Parkinson disease (PD) is a debilitating and chronic neurodegenerative disease resulting in ambulation difficulties. Natural walking activity often declines early in disease progression despite the relative st...

    Authors: Kerri S. Rawson, James T. Cavanaugh, Cristina Colon-Semenza, Tami DeAngelis, Ryan P. Duncan, Daniel Fulford, Michael P. LaValley, Pietro Mazzoni, Timothy Nordahl, Lisa M. Quintiliani, Marie Saint-Hilaire, Cathi A. Thomas, Gammon M. Earhart and Terry D. Ellis

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2020 20:146

    Content type: Study protocol

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  6. Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a late onset, X-linked genetic, neurodegenerative disorder caused by a “premutation (PM)” in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene. Here we report a...

    Authors: Cuiping Zhao, Yiming Liu, Yihua Wang, Hongyan Li, Bin Zhang, Yaoxian Yue and Jianyuan Zhang

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2020 20:145

    Content type: Case report

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  7. RLS is known as one of the most common movement disorders during pregnancy, which is most aggravated in the third trimester of pregnancy and can affect up to one-third of pregnant women. This study intends to ...

    Authors: Niloofar Darvishi, Alireza Daneshkhah, Behnam Khaledi-Paveh, Aliakbar Vaisi-Raygani, Masoud Mohammadi, Nader Salari, Fateme Darvishi, Alireza Abdi and Rostam Jalali

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2020 20:132

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a rare movement disorder with poor prognosis. This retrospective study aimed to characterize the natural history of PSP and to find predictors of shorter survival and fa...

    Authors: Shi-Shuang Cui, Hua-Wei Ling, Juan-Juan Du, Yi-Qi Lin, Jing Pan, Hai-Yan Zhou, Gang Wang, Ying Wang, Qin Xiao, Jun Liu, Yu-Yan Tan and Sheng-Di Chen

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2020 20:114

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Phospholipase A2 group VI (PLA2G6) mutations associated with neurodegeneration (PLAN) manifest as heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorders with variable ages of onset. The genotype-phenotype correlation is not w...

    Authors: Yung-Tsai Chu, Han-Yi Lin, Pei-Lung Chen and Chin-Hsien Lin

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2020 20:101

    Content type: Case report

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  10. Intracranial neoplasms are an uncommon cause of symptomatic parkinsonism. We here report a patient with an extensive middle and posterior fossa arachnoid cyst presenting with parkinsonism that was treated by n...

    Authors: Bernadette Wimmer, Stephanie Mangesius, Klaus Seppi, Sarah Iglseder, Franziska Di Pauli, Martin Ortler, Elke Gizewski, Werner Poewe and Gregor Karl Wenning

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2020 20:89

    Content type: Case report

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  11. Huntington’s disease (HD), an inherited, often late-onset, neurodegenerative disorder, is considered to be a rare, orphan disease. Research into its genetic correlates and services for those affected are inade...

    Authors: Nikhil Ratna, Nitish L. Kamble, Sowmya D. Venkatesh, Meera Purushottam, Pramod K. Pal and Sanjeev Jain

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2020 20:87

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder. Reduced balance is one of the cardinal symptoms of PD, predisposing people living with PD to experience difficulties with the execution of ...

    Authors: Sofie LaGrone, Conran Joseph, Hanna Johansson, Birgit Enberg and Erika Franzén

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2020 20:50

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Both Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) and Continuous intrajejunal Levodopa Infusion (CLI) are effective therapies for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD). To our knowledge, no direct head-to-head comparison ...

    Authors: D. van Poppelen, V. Sisodia, R. J. de Haan, M. G. W. Dijkgraaf, P. R. Schuurman, G. J. Geurtsen, A. E. M. Berk, R. M. A. de Bie and J. M. Dijk

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2020 20:40

    Content type: Study protocol

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  14. Alexander disease is a rare neurological disease characterized by progressive spastic quadriparesis and bulbar palsy. Moreover, certain patients with adult-onset Alexander disease were often misdiagnosed as ot...

    Authors: Jongkyu Park, Sung-Tae Park, Jieun Kim and Kyum-Yil Kwon

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2020 20:27

    Content type: Case report

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  15. Parkinson’s disease (PD) and atypical parkinsonisms (APD) have overlapping symptoms challenging an early diagnosis. Diagnostic accuracy is important because PD and APD have different prognosis and response to ...

    Authors: Anna Santaella, H. Bea Kuiperij, Anouke van Rumund, Rianne A. J. Esselink, Alain J. van Gool, Bastiaan R. Bloem and Marcel M. Verbeek

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2020 20:26

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative movement disorder that is characterized by motor symptoms such as tremor, rigidity, slowness of movement and problems with gait. Large-scale meta-ana...

    Authors: Hui Wu, Hui Li, Zhiqiang Shi, Jiajia Tang, Shuya Mei, Tianyi Ai and Zhenzhou He

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2020 20:19

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Pain is a common problem for individuals with cerebral palsy (CP). In Sweden, 95% of children and adolescents with CP are followed in a national follow-up programme (CPUP), which includes data on pain. The pur...

    Authors: Elsa Eriksson, Gunnar Hägglund and Ann I. Alriksson-Schmidt

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2020 20:15

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Active Rehabilitation (AR) is a community peer-based concept for people with spinal cord injury (SCI) that is primarily delivered through brief residential training programmes. Despite a plethora of positive a...

    Authors: Anestis Divanoglou, Tomasz Tasiemski and Sophie Jörgensen

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2020 20:14

    Content type: Study protocol

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  19. Huntington’s disease (HD) is a rare, genetic, neurodegenerative and ultimately fatal disease with no cure or progression-delaying treatment currently available. HD is characterized by a triad of cognitive, beh...

    Authors: Christoph Ohlmeier, Kai-Uwe Saum, Wolfgang Galetzka, Dominik Beier and Holger Gothe

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:318

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Huntington’s disease (HD) is a progressive, neurological disorder that results in both cognitive and physical impairments. These impairments affect an individual’s gait and, as the disease progresses, it signi...

    Authors: Helia Mahzoun Alzakerin, Yannis Halkiadakis and Kristin D. Morgan

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:316

    Content type: Research article

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  21. The mechanisms underlying the online modulation of motor speech in Parkinson’s disease (PD) have not been determined. Moreover, medical and rehabilitation interventions for PD-associated motor speech disorder ...

    Authors: Ying Liu, Yuchang Gui, Jincui Hu, Shanshan Liang, Sixia Mo, Yuanfang Zhou, Yujian Li, Fengkun Zhou and Jianwen Xu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:309

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP) is the most frequent form of atypical Parkinsonism. Although there is preliminary evidence for the benefits of gait rehabilitation, balance training and oculomotor exercise...

    Authors: Susan C. Slade, Martin Underwood, Jennifer L. McGinley and Meg E. Morris

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:305

    Content type: Research article

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  23. McLeod syndrome is a rare X-linked recessive acanthocytosis associated with neurological manifestations including progressive chorea, cognitive impairment, psychiatric disturbances, seizures, and sensorimotor ...

    Authors: Takenobu Murakami, Dan Abe, Hideyuki Matsumoto, Ryo Tokimura, Mitsunari Abe, Amanda Tiksnadi, Shunsuke Kobayashi, Chikako Kaneko, Yuka Urata, Masayuki Nakamura, Akira Sano and Yoshikazu Ugawa

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:301

    Content type: Case report

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  24. Parkinson’s disease (PD) affects many physiological systems essential for balance control. Recent studies suggest that intensive and cognitively demanding physical exercise programs are capable of inducing pla...

    Authors: Erika Franzén, Hanna Johansson, Malin Freidle, Urban Ekman, Martin Benka Wallén, Ellika Schalling, Alexander Lebedev, Martin Lövdén, Staffan Holmin, Per Svenningsson and Maria Hagströmer

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:280

    Content type: Study protocol

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  25. Wilson disease (WD) is genetically induced failure of copper metabolism which can be successfully treated with pharmacological agents. The prognosis for survival in most WD patients is favorable if diagnosis a...

    Authors: Wojciech Masełbas, Anna Członkowska, Tomasz Litwin and Maciej Niewada

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:278

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) is a complex disease, whose exact cause remains unclear. A wide range of risk factors has been proposed that helps understanding potential disease pa...

    Authors: Eliana M. Lacerda, Keith Geraghty, Caroline C. Kingdon, Luigi Palla and Luis Nacul

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:275

    Content type: Research article

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  27. In the nineteenth century, Jean Martin Charcot explained functional neurological disorder (formerly called conversion disorder) as a “psychodynamic” lesion. Numerous advances in neuroimaging have permitted ide...

    Authors: Silvio Galli, Selma Aybek, Sylvie Chokron, Thierry Moulin and Eloi Magnin

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:270

    Content type: Case report

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  28. Progressive neurological diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, significantly interfere with patients’ lives, and those of their families. The aim of the research was ...

    Authors: Radka Bužgová and Radka Kozáková

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:250

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Patients with functional motor disorder (FMD) experience persistent and disabling neurological symptoms such as weakness, tremor, dystonia and disordered gait. Physiotherapy is usually considered an important ...

    Authors: Glenn Nielsen, Jon Stone, Marta Buszewicz, Alan Carson, Laura H. Goldstein, Kate Holt, Rachael Hunter, Jonathan Marsden, Louise Marston, Hayley Noble, Markus Reuber and Mark J. Edwards

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:242

    Content type: Study protocol

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  30. Non motor symptoms (NMS) of Parkinson’s disease (PD) are common and can be more disabling than motor symptoms. Sleep disorders can be seen in up to 98% of patients with Parkinson disease. Poor sleep quality ha...

    Authors: Dereje Melka, Abenet Tafesse, James H. Bower and Demeke Assefa

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:205

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Stroke is the second-leading global cause of death behind heart disease in 2013 and is a major cause of permanent disability. The burden of stroke in terms of mortality, morbidity and disability is increasing ...

    Authors: Ginenus Fekadu, Legese Chelkeba and Ayantu Kebede

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:187

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a serious, often irreversible movement disorder caused by prolonged exposure to antipsychotics; identifying patients at risk for TD is critical to preventing it. Predictive models fo...

    Authors: Oscar Patterson-Lomba, Rajeev Ayyagari and Benjamin Carroll

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:174

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a life-changing experience for the individuals with SCI and their families. This study aimed to investigate physical strategies used for overcoming physical disability in individual...

    Authors: Alireza Nikbakht-Nasrabadi, Nooredin Mohammadi, Manijeh Yazdanshenas and Maryam Shabany

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:171

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Our understanding of the etiology, pathophysiology, phenotypic diversity, and progression of Parkinson’s disease has stagnated. Consequently, patients do not receive the best care, leading to unnecessary disab...

    Authors: B. R. Bloem, W. J. Marks Jr., A. L. Silva de Lima, M. L. Kuijf, T. van Laar, B. P. F. Jacobs, M. M. Verbeek, R. C. Helmich, B. P. van de Warrenburg, L. J. W. Evers, J. intHout, T. van de Zande, T. M. Snyder, R. Kapur and M. J. Meinders

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:160

    Content type: Study protocol

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  35. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) is the most common subtype among the autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias, a group of neurodegenerative disorders for which currently no disease-specific therapy is availa...

    Authors: Roderick P. P. W. M. Maas, Ivan Toni, Jonne Doorduin, Thomas Klockgether, Dennis J. L. G. Schutter and Bart P. C. van de Warrenburg

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:149

    Content type: Study protocol

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  36. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases. Patients suffer from a variety of motor and non-motor symptoms that severely affect their daily lives and quality of life. In many...

    Authors: Carolin Siegert, Björn Hauptmann, Nicole Jochems, Andreas Schrader and Ruth Deck

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:143

    Content type: Study protocol

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Neurology 2019 19:199

  37. Dystonia is a movement disorder substantially affecting the quality of life and the ability to work. A proportion of patients does not respond to first line pharmacotherapy. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is est...

    Authors: Rebekka M. Ortiz, Filip Scheperjans and Eero Pekkonen

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:137

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Diabetic chorea appears during the course of poorly-controlled diabetes. While chorea associated with diabetes mellitus usually occurs during hyperglycemic episodes, hypoglycemia can also cause diabetic chorea...

    Authors: Eriko Matsushima, Hiroshi Shiota, Kentaro Watanabe, Yuichiro Otsuka, Midori Yamana, Suguru Yamaguchi, Fujiko Egashira, Satoshi Kamei and Hisamitsu Ishihara

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:131

    Content type: Case report

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  39. Clinical diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease (PD) has always lagged behind clinical symptoms. The diagnostic latency might be influenced by many factors. The diagnostic latency of Chinese people with PD has been ...

    Authors: Ying Wan, Yingying Zhu, Yi Luo, Xun Han, Yongsheng Li, Jing Gan, Na Wu, Anmu Xie and Zhenguo Liu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:120

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Toxic oligomeric α-synuclein (αS; O-αS) has been suggested to play a central role in the pathogenesis of Lewy body diseases such as Parkinson’s disease (PD). Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of αS, O-αS, total...

    Authors: Hidetomo Murakami, Takahiko Tokuda, Omar M. A. El-Agnaf, Takuma Ohmichi, Ayako Miki, Hideaki Ohashi, Yoshiyuki Owan, Yu Saito, Satoshi Yano, Tamao Tsukie, Takeshi Ikeuchi and Kenjiro Ono

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:113

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) affects 1–2% of people over 60 years of age and presents a high risk of developing a neurodegenerative disorder from the group of synucleinopathies,...

    Authors: Jitka Bušková, Pavla Peřinová, Eva Miletínová, Petr Dušek, Evžen Růžička, Karel Šonka and David Kemlink

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:110

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Apathy is a prominent non-motor symptom in Parkinson’s disease (PD). People with apathy show a lack of emotion, passion, and motivation. Between 17 and 70% of persons with PD have apathy; the extreme heterogen...

    Authors: Bria Mele, Zahra Goodarzi, Heather M. Hanson and Jayna Holroyd-Leduc

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:101

    Content type: Research article

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  43. This pilot study was to examine the feasibility and tolerance of whole body vibration therapy (WBVT) for children and adults with moderate severity of cerebral palsy (CP) being graded as levels III or IV on th...

    Authors: Tamis W. Pin, Penelope B. Butler and Sheila Purves

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:80

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Huntington’s disease (HD) is a rare, genetic neurodegenerative disorder often presenting with emotional, cognitive and behavioral abnormalities before manifestation of disease defining motor symptoms. Cognitiv...

    Authors: Sebastian Michels, Hans-Georg Buchholz, Florian Rosar, Isabel Heinrich, Manuela A. Hoffmann, Susann Schweiger, Oliver Tüscher and Mathias Schreckenberger

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:78

    Content type: Case report

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  45. Parkinson’s disease is a complex neurological disorder characterized by a variety of motor- as well as non-motor symptoms. Video-based technology (using continuous home monitoring) may bridge the gap between t...

    Authors: N. M. de Vries, K. Smilowska, J. Hummelink, B. Abramiuc, M. M. van Gilst, B. R. Bloem, P. H. N. de With and S. Overeem

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:71

    Content type: Research article

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