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  1. The basal ganglia (BG) are thought to play an important role in the control of eye movements. Accordingly, the broad variety of subtle oculomotor alterations that has been described in Parkinson's disease (PD)...

    Authors: Elmar H Pinkhardt, Reinhart Jürgens, Dorothée Lulé, Johanna Heimrath, Albert C Ludolph, Wolfgang Becker and Jan Kassubek

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2012 12:5

    Content type: Research article

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  2. This paper describes the rationale and design of the ENVIS-ion Study, which aims to determine whether low-dose aspirin reduces the development of white matter hyper-intense (WMH) lesions and silent brain infar...

    Authors: Christopher M Reid, Elsdon Storey, Tien Y Wong, Robyn Woods, Andrew Tonkin, Jie Jin Wang, Anthony Kam, Andrew Janke, Rowan Essex, Walter P Abhayaratna and Marc M Budge

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2012 12:3

    Content type: Study protocol

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  3. Previous cost-effectiveness studies of cholinesterase inhibitors have modeled Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression and treatment effects through single or global severity measures, or progression to "Full Time...

    Authors: Susanne Hartz, Denis Getsios, Sunning Tao, Steve Blume and Grant Maclaine

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2012 12:2

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Supine recumbence has been widely performed to prevent post-lumbar puncture headache (PLPH). However, the optimal duration of supine recumbence is controversial. The aim of the study is to compare the occurren...

    Authors: Sung R Kim, Hyun S Chae, Mi J Yoon, Jung H Han, Kwang J Cho and Sun J Chung

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2012 12:1

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and parkinsonian variant of multiple system atrophy (MSA-P) are clinically difficult to differentiate from idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD), particularly in the early st...

    Authors: Masahiko Suzuki, Masaya Hashimoto, Masayuki Yoshioka, Maiko Murakami, Keiichi Kawasaki and Mitsuyoshi Urashima

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:157

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) is the rate-limiting enzyme for producing γ-aminobutyric acid, and it has been suggested that antibodies against GAD play a role in neurological conditions and type 1 diabetes...

    Authors: Masahito Takagi, Hiroshi Yamasaki, Keiko Endo, Tetsuya Yamada, Keizo Kaneko, Yoshitomo Oka and Etsuro Mori

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:156

    Content type: Case report

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  7. There are a lack of biomarkers which can be used to predict clinical outcomes for multiple sclerosis (MS) patients receiving interferon beta (IFN-β). Thus the objective of this study was to characterize change...

    Authors: Jennifer M Kress-Bennett, Garth D Ehrlich, Ashley Bruno, J Christopher Post, Fen Z Hu and Thomas F Scott

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:155

    Content type: Research article

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  8. The intracranial localization of large artery disease is recognized as the main cause of ischemic stroke in the world, considering all countries, although its global burden is widely underestimated. Indeed it ...

    Authors: Giovanni Malferrari, Marialuisa Zedde, Gianni De Berti, Massimo Maggi and Norina Marcello

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:154

    Content type: Case report

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  9. A detailed behavioral profile associated with focal congenital malformation of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) has not been reported previously. Here we describe a 14 year-old boy, B.W., with neurol...

    Authors: Aaron D Boes, Amanda Hornaday Grafft, Charuta Joshi, Nathaniel A Chuang, Peg Nopoulos and Steven W Anderson

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:151

    Content type: Case report

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  10. Children diagnosed with spastic Cerebral Palsy (CP) often show perceptual and cognitive problems, which may contribute to their functional deficit. Here we investigated if altered ability to determine whether ...

    Authors: Anina Ritterband-Rosenbaum, Mark S Christensen, Mette Kliim-Due, Line Z Petersen, Betina Rasmussen and Jens B Nielsen

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:150

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis is an increasingly common autoimmune disorder mediated by antibodies to certain subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. Recent literatures have described a...

    Authors: Chun-Ling Xu, Lei Liu, Wei-Qin Zhao, Ji-Mei Li, Rui-Jin Wang, Shu-Hui Wang, De-Xin Wang, Mei-Yun Liu, Shan-Shan Qiao and Jia-Wei Wang

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:149

    Content type: Case report

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  12. There is conflicting information as to whether antiretroviral drugs with better central nervous system (CNS) penetration (neuroHAART) assist in improving neurocognitive function and suppressing cerebrospinal f...

    Authors: Lucette A Cysique, Edward K Waters and Bruce J Brew

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:148

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Few data are available on the prevalence of cognitive impairment (CI) in Spain, and the existing information shows important variations depending on the geographical setting and the methodology employed. The a...

    Authors: Emiliano Rodríguez-Sánchez, Sara Mora-Simón, María C Patino-Alonso, Ricardo García-García, Alfonso Escribano-Hernández, Luis García-Ortiz, Ma Victoria Perea- Bartolomé and Manuel A Gómez-Marcos

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:147

    Content type: Research article

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  14. There is a growing interest in the role of the endothelium in migraine. Recently, our group showed differences in endothelial function between the anterior and posterior cerebral circulation in healthy subject...

    Authors: Denis Perko, Janja Pretnar-Oblak, Mišo Šabovič, Marjan Zaletel and Bojana Žvan

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:146

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Mitochondrial dysfunction due to respiratory chain impairment is a key feature in pathogenesis of Friedreich ataxia. Friedreich ataxia affects the nervous system, heart and pancreas.

    Authors: Sven H Stüwe, Oliver Goetze, Larissa Arning, Matthias Banasch, Wolfgang E Schmidt, Ludger Schöls and Carsten Saft

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:145

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Interferon beta (IFNβ) and glatiramer acetate (GA) are administered by subcutaneous (SC) or intramuscular (IM) injection. Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) often report injection-site reactions (ISRs) as a...

    Authors: Karsten Beer, Martin Müller, Anna Marie Hew-Winzeler, Adriano Bont, Philippe Maire, Xiaojun You, Pamela Foulds, Jessica Mårlind and Daniela Curtius

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:144

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Little is known about the clinical features and true survival risk factors in Chinese Han population. We conducted the current study to investigate the clinical features, long-term outcome and true potential i...

    Authors: Xiao Ming Shu, Xin Lu, Yao Xie and Guo Chun Wang

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:143

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Infarcts of the corpus callosum are rare and have not been well documented previously. As for a variety of signs and symptoms presented, alien hand syndrome (AHS) can be easily overlooked.

    Authors: Jun Liang Yuan, Shuang Kun Wang, Xiao Juan Guo and Wen Li Hu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:142

    Content type: Case report

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  19. "Negative affect" is one of the major migraine triggers. The aim of the study was to assess attentional biases for negative affective stimuli that might be related to migraine triggers in migraine patients wit...

    Authors: Anne-Katrin Puschmann and Claudia Sommer

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:141

    Content type: Case control study

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  20. A registry of patients with cervical dystonia (Cervical Dystonia Patient Registry for Observation of onaBotulinumtoxinA Efficacy [CD PROBE]) was initiated to capture data regarding physician practices and patient...

    Authors: Joseph Jankovic, Charles H Adler, P David Charles, Cynthia Comella, Mark Stacy, Marc Schwartz, Susan M Sutch, Mitchell F Brin and Spyridon Papapetropoulos

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:140

    Content type: Study protocol

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  21. Xenobiotics are neurotoxins that dramatically alter the health of the child. In addition, an inefficient detoxification system leads to oxidative stress, gut dysbiosis, and immune dysfunction. The consensus am...

    Authors: Yusra A Al-Yafee, Laila Y Al- Ayadhi, Samina H Haq and Afaf K El-Ansary

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:139

    Content type: Research article

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  22. This study aimed to investigate the long-term mortality and recurrence rate of stroke in first-time stroke patients with symptomatic isolated middle cerebral artery disease (MCAD) under medical management.

    Authors: Mi Sun Oh, Kyung-Ho Yu, Min-Kyung Chu, Hyeo-Il Ma, Yun Joong Kim, Joo Yong Kim and Byung-Chul Lee

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:138

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Pure akinesia (PA) is a distinct form of parkinsonism characterized by freezing phenomena. Little is known about brain tumor-associated PA. We highlight the clinicoradiological changes in a patient with PA and...

    Authors: Susumu Ishihara, Osamu Kano, Ken Ikeda, Reiko Shimokawa, Kiyokazu Kawabe and Yasuo Iwasaki

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:137

    Content type: Case report

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  24. Transcutaneous neurostimulation (TNS) at extracephalic sites is a well known treatment of pain. Thanks to recent technical progress, the Cefaly® device now also allows supraorbital TNS. During observational clini...

    Authors: Maxime Piquet, Costantino Balestra, Simona L Sava and Jean E Schoenen

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:135

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Action myoclonus-renal failure syndrome is a hereditary form of progressive myoclonus epilepsy associated with renal failure. It is considered to be an autosomal-recessive disease related to loss-of-function m...

    Authors: Franziska Hopfner, Barbara Schormair, Franziska Knauf, Achim Berthele, Thomas R Tölle, Ralf Baron, Christoph Maier, Rolf-Detlef Treede, Andreas Binder, Claudia Sommer, Christian Maihöfner, Wolfram Kunz, Friedrich Zimprich, Uwe Heemann, Arne Pfeufer, Michael Näbauer…

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:134

    Content type: Research article

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  26. To better characterize the value of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) proteins as diagnostic markers in a clinical population of subacute encephalopathy patients with relatively low prevalence of sporadic Creutzfeldt-...

    Authors: Michael B Coulthart, Gerard H Jansen, Elina Olsen, Deborah L Godal, Tim Connolly, Bernard CK Choi, Zheng Wang and Neil R Cashman

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:133

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) has recently been reported to be associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, its actual prevalence, possible association with specific MS phenotypes, an...

    Authors: Stefano Bastianello, Alfredo Romani, Gisela Viselner, Enrico Colli Tibaldi, Elisabetta Giugni, Marta Altieri, Pietro Cecconi, Laura Mendozzi, Massimiliano Farina, Donatella Mariani, Antonio Galassi, Claudio Quattrini, Marcello Mancini, Vincenzo Bresciamorra, Angela Lagace, Sandy McDonald…

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:132

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Machado-Joseph disease (MJD), or spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3), is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder of late onset, which is caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the coding region of the ATXN...

    Authors: Conceição Bettencourt, Cristina Santos, Paula Coutinho, Patrizia Rizzu, João Vasconcelos, Teresa Kay, Teresa Cymbron, Mafalda Raposo, Peter Heutink and Manuela Lima

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:131

    Content type: Case report

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  29. Although task-oriented training has been shown to improve walking outcomes after stroke, it is not yet clear whether one task-oriented approach is superior to another. The purpose of this study is to compare t...

    Authors: Vincent G DePaul, Laurie R Wishart, Julie Richardson, Timothy D Lee and Lehana Thabane

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:129

    Content type: Study protocol

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  30. The potential pathogenesis between the presence and severity of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) and its relation to clinical and imaging outcomes in brain parenchyma of multiple sclerosis (M...

    Authors: Robert Zivadinov, Guy U Poloni, Karen Marr, Claudiu V Schirda, Christopher R Magnano, Ellen Carl, Niels Bergsland, David Hojnacki, Cheryl Kennedy, Clive B Beggs, Michael G Dwyer and Bianca Weinstock-Guttman

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:128

    Content type: Research article

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  31. The Multiple Sclerosis International Quality Of Life (MusiQoL) questionnaire, a 31-item, multidimensional, self-administrated questionnaire that is available in 14 languages including Spanish, has been validat...

    Authors: Oscar Fernández, Victoria Fernández, Karine Baumstarck-Barrau, Luis Muñoz, Maria del Mar Gonzalez Alvarez, José Carlos Arrabal, Antonio León, Ana Alonso, Jose Carlos López-Madrona, Rafael Bustamante, Gloria Luque, Miguel Guerrero, Elisabetta Verdun di Cantogno and Pascal Auquier

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:127

    Content type: Research article

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  32. The ability to self-inject in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) has been associated with a reduced risk of missed injections and drug discontinuation, and a beneficial effect on patients' independence. How...

    Authors: J Theodore Phillips, Edward Fox, William Grainger, Dianne Tuccillo, Shifang Liu and Aaron Deykin

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:126

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has improved the diagnosis and monitoring of multiple sclerosis (MS). In clinical trials, MRI has been found to detect treatment effects with greater sensitivity t...

    Authors: Stefano Bastianello, Elisabetta Giugni, Maria Pia Amato, Maria-Rosalia Tola, Maria Trojano, Stefano Galletti, Giacomo Luccichenti, Mario Quarantelli, Orietta Picconi and Francesco Patti

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:125

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) with increasing incidence mainly in high-income countries. One explanation of this phenomenon may be ...

    Authors: Silja Conradi, Uwe Malzahn, Franziska Schröter, Friedemann Paul, Sabine Quill, Eike Spruth, Lutz Harms, Florian Then Bergh, Anna Ditzenbach, Thomas Georgi, Peter Heuschmann and Berit Rosche

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:123

    Content type: Research article

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  35. The goal of this research was to compare the demographics, clinical characteristics and treatment patterns for newly diagnosed multiple sclerosis (MS) patients in a commercial managed care population who recei...

    Authors: Jay M Margolis, Robert Fowler, Barbara H Johnson, Cheryl A Kassed and Kristijan Kahler

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:122

    Content type: Research article

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  36. In central nervous system cholesterol cannot be degraded but is secreted into circulation predominantly in the form of its polar metabolite 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol (24S-OH-Chol). Some studies suggested an associ...

    Authors: Giovanni Zuliani, Michela Perrone Donnorso, Cristina Bosi, Angelina Passaro, Edoardo Dalla Nora, Amedeo Zurlo, Francesco Bonetti, Alessia F Mozzi and Claudio Cortese

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:121

    Content type: Research article

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  37. The gamma-isoform of the 14-3-3 protein (14-3-3 gamma) is expressed in neurons, and could be a specific marker for neuronal damage. This protein has been reported as a detectable biomarker, especially in the c...

    Authors: Yuki Matsui, Katsuya Satoh, Toshiaki Miyazaki, Susumu Shirabe, Ryuichiro Atarashi, Kazuo Mutsukura, Akira Satoh, Yasufumi Kataoka and Noriyuki Nishida

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:120

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Autosomal recessive primary microcephaly is a disorder of neurogenic mitosis that causes reduction in brain size. It is a rare heterogeneous condition with seven causative genes reported to date. Mutations in WD ...

    Authors: Rizwana Kousar, Muhammad Jawad Hassan, Bushra Khan, Sulman Basit, Saqib Mahmood, Asif Mir, Wasim Ahmad and Muhammad Ansar

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:119

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Substituted judgment asks the proxy to decide what the patient would have decided, had he or she been competent. It is unclear whether substituted judgment of the patient's quality of life can serve as a surro...

    Authors: Claudia Schiffczyk, Christina Jonas, Constanze Lahmeyer, Friedemann Müller and Matthias W Riepe

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:118

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Low doses of dopamine agonists (DA) and levodopa are effective in the treatment of restless legs syndrome (RLS). A range of impulse control and compulsive behaviours (ICBs) have been reported following the use...

    Authors: Valerie Voon, Andrea Schoerling, Sascha Wenzel, Vindhya Ekanayake, Julia Reiff, Claudia Trenkwalder and Friederike Sixel-Döring

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:117

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Robotic devices are expected to be widely used in various applications including support for the independent mobility of the elderly with muscle weakness and people with impaired motor function as well as supp...

    Authors: Shinichiro Maeshima, Aiko Osawa, Daisuke Nishio, Yoshitake Hirano, Koji Takeda, Hiroshi Kigawa and Yoshiyuki Sankai

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:116

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Headache has been reported to be associated with mobile phone (MP) use in some individuals. The causal relationship between headache associated with MP use (HAMP) and MP use is currently undetermined. Identify...

    Authors: Min Kyung Chu, Hoon Geun Song, Chulho Kim and Byung Chul Lee

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:115

    Content type: Research article

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  43. A possible synergic role of serum uric acid (SUA) with thrombolytic therapies is controversial and needs further investigations. We therefore evaluated association of admission SUA with clinical improvement an...

    Authors: Nicola Logallo, Halvor Naess, Titto T Idicula, Jan Brogger, Ulrike Waje-Andreassen and Lars Thomassen

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:114

    Content type: Research article

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