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  1. Early initiation of pharmacotherapy in Parkinson's disease (PD) is nowadays widely advocated by experts since the delay of treatment has shown to be associated with a significant deterioration of health relate...

    Authors: Matthias Löhle and Heinz Reichmann

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:112

    Content type: Debate

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  2. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterised by loss of motor neurons leading to severe weakness and death from respiratory failure within 3-5 years. Riluzole...

    Authors: Ammar Al-Chalabi, Pamela J Shaw, Carolyn A Young, Karen E Morrison, Caroline Murphy, Marie Thornhill, Joanna Kelly, I Nicholas Steen and P Nigel Leigh

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:111

    Content type: Study protocol

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  3. stroke is the main cause of disability in high-income countries, and ranks second as a cause of death worldwide. Patients with acute stroke are at risk for infections, but reported post-stroke infection rates v....

    Authors: Willeke F Westendorp, Paul J Nederkoorn, Jan-Dirk Vermeij, Marcel G Dijkgraaf and Diederik van de Beek

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:110

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Young stroke can have devastating consequences with respect to quality of life, the ability to work, plan or run a family, and participate in social life. Better insight into risk factors and the long-term pro...

    Authors: Loes CA Rutten-Jacobs, Noortje AM Maaijwee, Renate M Arntz, Mayte E Van Alebeek, Pauline Schaapsmeerders, Henny C Schoonderwaldt, Lucille DA Dorresteijn, Sebastiaan Overeem, Gea Drost, Mirian C Janssen, Waander L van Heerde, Roy PC Kessels, Marcel P Zwiers, David G Norris, Maureen J van der Vlugt, Ewoud J van Dijk…

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:109

    Content type: Study protocol

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  5. Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a leading cause of fatal ischemic stroke. It was recently reported that international normalized ratio (INR) levels were associated with infarct volumes. However, factors other than...

    Authors: Semi Oh, Suk Jae Kim, Soo-Kyoung Ryu, Gyeong-Moon Kim, Chin Sang Chung, Kwang Ho Lee and Oh Young Bang

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:107

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Shared medical appointments are a series of one-to-one doctor-patient contacts, in presence of a group of 6-10 fellow patients. This group visits substitute the annual control visits of patients with the neuro...

    Authors: Femke M Seesing, Gea Drost, Gert-Jan van der Wilt and Baziel GM van Engelen

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:106

    Content type: Study protocol

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  7. Despite negative neuroimaging findings many athletes display neurophysiological alterations and post-concussion symptoms that may be attributable to neurometabolic alterations.

    Authors: Luke C Henry, Sébastien Tremblay, Suzanne Leclerc, Abdesselam Khiat, Yvan Boulanger, Dave Ellemberg and Maryse Lassonde

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:105

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Neuropathic pain must be correctly diagnosed for optimal treatment. The questionnaire named Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory (NPSI) was developed in its original French version to evaluate the different symp...

    Authors: Claudia Sommer, Helmut Richter, Jan P Rogausch, Jule Frettlöh, Margitta Lungenhausen and Christoph Maier

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:104

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Migraine is a significant health problem, especially for the young people, due to its frequency and accompanying morbidity, causing disability and loss of performance. In this study, our aim was to determine t...

    Authors: Serdar Oztora, Osman Korkmaz, Nezih Dagdeviren, Yahya Celik, Ayse Caylan, Mehmet S Top and Talip Asil

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:103

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS), defined by recurrent stereotypical episodes of nausea and vomiting, is a relatively-common disabling and historically difficult-to-treat condition associated with migraine heada...

    Authors: Richard G Boles

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:102

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Acute encephalopathy includes rapid deterioration and has a poor prognosis. Early intervention is essential to prevent progression of the disease and subsequent neurologic complications. However, in the acute ...

    Authors: Takeshi Asano, Shinya Koizumi, Atsushi Takagi, Takayuki Hatori, Kentaroh Kuwabara, Osamu Fujino and Yoshitaka Fukunaga

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:101

    Content type: Research article

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  12. A recent trial involving predominantly Caucasian subjects with Parkinson Disease (PD) showed switching overnight from an oral dopaminergic agonist to the rotigotine patch was well tolerated without loss of eff...

    Authors: Han-Joon Kim, Beom S Jeon, Won Yong Lee, Myoung Chong Lee, Jae Woo Kim, Jong-Min Kim, Tae-Beom Ahn, Jinwhan Cho, Sun Ju Chung, Frank Grieger, John Whitesides and Babak Boroojerdi

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:100

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Dementia is a major and increasing health problem worldwide. This study aims to investigate dementia treatment strategies among physicians specialised in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) by analysi...

    Authors: Elke Jeschke, Thomas Ostermann, Horst C Vollmar, Manuela Tabali, Friedemann Schad and Harald Matthes

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:99

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Levels of the cardiac muscle regulatory protein troponin T (cTnT) are frequently elevated in patients with acute ischemic stroke and elevated cTnT predicts poor outcome and mortality. The pathomechanism of tro...

    Authors: Jan F Scheitz, Hans-Christian Mochmann, Christian H Nolte, Karl G Haeusler, Heinrich J Audebert, Peter U Heuschmann, Ulrich Laufs, Bernhard Witzenbichler, Heinz-Peter Schultheiss and Matthias Endres

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:98

    Content type: Study protocol

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  15. Long-term immunosuppression is often required in myasthenia gravis (MG). There are no published trials using methotrexate (MTX) in MG. The steroid-sparing efficacy of azathioprine (AZA) has been demonstrated a...

    Authors: Jeannine M Heckmann, Amanullah Rawoot, Kathleen Bateman, Rudi Renison and Motasim Badri

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:97

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Infection with severe malaria in African children is associated with not only a high mortality but also a high risk of cognitive deficits. There is evidence that interventions done a few years after the illnes...

    Authors: Paul Bangirana, Peter Allebeck, Michael J Boivin, Chandy C John, Connie Page, Anna Ehnvall and Seggane Musisi

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:96

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) have a decreased frequency of CD8+ T cells reactive to their own Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infected B cells. We have proposed that this might predispose to the development of ...

    Authors: Michael P Pender, Peter A Csurhes, Casey MM Pfluger and Scott R Burrows

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:95

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Many migraineurs who seek care in headache clinics are refractory to treatment, despite advances in headache therapies. Epidemiology is poorly characterized, because diagnostic criteria for refractory migraine...

    Authors: Pablo Irimia, Jose-Alberto Palma, Roberto Fernandez-Torron and Eduardo Martinez-Vila

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:94

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Although physical therapy and falls prevention education are argued to reduce falls and disability in people with idiopathic Parkinson's disease, this has not yet been confirmed with a large scale randomised c...

    Authors: Meg E Morris, Hylton B Menz, Jennifer L McGinley, Frances E Huxham, Anna T Murphy, Robert Iansek, Mary Danoudis, Sze-Ee Soh, David Kelly and Jennifer J Watts

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:93

    Content type: Study protocol

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  20. To assess and compare the effectiveness and costs of Phototest, Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), and Memory Impairment Screen (MIS) to screen for dementia (DEM) and cognitive impairment (CI).

    Authors: Cristobal Carnero-Pardo, Beatriz Espejo-Martinez, Samuel Lopez-Alcalde, Maria Espinosa-Garcia, Carmen Saez-Zea, Rosa Vilchez-Carrillo, Elisa Hernandez-Torres and Jose L Navarro-Espigares

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:92

    Content type: Research article

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  21. The mechanisms underlying the interictal habituation deficit of cortical visual evoked potentials (VEP) in migraine are not well understood. Abnormal long-term functional plasticity of the visual cortex may pl...

    Authors: Gianluca Coppola, Julien Crémers, Pascale Gérard, Francesco Pierelli and Jean Schoenen

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:91

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Difficulty performing more than one task at a time (dual tasking) is a common and disabling problem experienced by people with Parkinson disease (PD). If asked to perform another task when walking, people with...

    Authors: Sandra G Brauer, Marjorie H Woollacott, Robyn Lamont, Sandy Clewett, John O'Sullivan, Peter Silburn, George D Mellick and Meg E Morris

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:90

    Content type: Study protocol

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  23. Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by alterations in dopaminergic neurotransmission. Genetic polymorphisms involved in dopaminergic neurotransmission may influence susceptibility to PD.

    Authors: Chikako Kiyohara, Yoshihiro Miyake, Midori Koyanagi, Takahiro Fujimoto, Senji Shirasawa, Keiko Tanaka, Wakaba Fukushima, Satoshi Sasaki, Yoshio Tsuboi, Tatsuo Yamada, Tomoko Oeda, Hiroyuki Shimada, Nobutoshi Kawamura, Nobutaka Sakae, Hidenao Fukuyama, Yoshio Hirota…

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:89

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Studies in animals suggest that the noradrenergic system arising from the locus coeruleus (LC) and dopaminergic pathways mutually influence each other. Little is known however, about the functional state of th...

    Authors: Ioannis U Isaias, Giorgio Marotta, Gianni Pezzoli, Osama Sabri, Johannes Schwarz, Paolo Crenna, Joseph Classen and Paolo Cavallari

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:88

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Visual loss following stroke impacts significantly on activities of daily living and is an independent risk factor for becoming dependent. Routinely, allied health clinicians provide training for visual field ...

    Authors: Stacey George, Allison Hayes, Celia Chen and Maria Crotty

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:87

    Content type: Study protocol

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  26. Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (MD1) is one of the most prevalent neuromuscular diseases, yet very little is known about how MD1 affects the lives of couples and how they themselves manage individually and together...

    Authors: Edith HC Cup, Astrid Kinébanian, Ton Satink, Allan J Pieterse, Henk T Hendricks, Rob AB Oostendorp, Gert Jan van der Wilt and Baziel GM van Engelen

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:86

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Leigh Syndrome (LS) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder characterized by bilateral symmetrical necrotic lesions in the basal ganglia and brainstem. Onset is in early infancy and prognosis is poor. Causative...

    Authors: Dario Ronchi, Alessandra Cosi, Davide Tonduti, Simona Orcesi, Andreina Bordoni, Francesco Fortunato, Mafalda Rizzuti, Monica Sciacco, Martina Collotta, Sophie Cagdas, Giuseppe Capovilla, Maurizio Moggio, Angela Berardinelli, Pierangelo Veggiotti and Giacomo P Comi

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:85

    Content type: Case report

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  28. Paradoxical embolism due to pulmonary arteriovenous malformations is the main mechanism of brain infarction in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. International Guidelines have recently been p...

    Authors: Espartaco Ribeiro, Julien Cogez, Emmanuel Babin, Fausto Viader and Gilles Defer

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:84

    Content type: Case report

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  29. The evidence for associations between occupational factors and the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD) is inconsistent. We assessed the risk of PD associated with various occupational factors in Japan.

    Authors: Keiko Tanaka, Yoshihiro Miyake, Wakaba Fukushima, Satoshi Sasaki, Chikako Kiyohara, Yoshio Tsuboi, Tatsuo Yamada, Tomoko Oeda, Takami Miki, Nobutoshi Kawamura, Nobutaka Sakae, Hidenao Fukuyama, Yoshio Hirota and Masaki Nagai

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:83

    Content type: Case control study

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  30. Previous studies suggest central nervous system involvement in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), yet there are no established diagnostic criteria. CFS may be difficult to differentiate from clinical depression. ...

    Authors: Frank H Duffy, Gloria B McAnulty, Michelle C McCreary, George J Cuchural and Anthony L Komaroff

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:82

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Rehabilitation for children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (HCP) aimed to improve function of the impaired upper limb (UL) uses a wide range of intervention programs. A new rehabilitative approach, called Acti...

    Authors: Giuseppina Sgandurra, Adriano Ferrari, Giuseppe Cossu, Andrea Guzzetta, Laura Biagi, Michela Tosetti, Leonardo Fogassi and Giovanni Cioni

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:80

    Content type: Study protocol

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  32. Phosphatidylserine (PS) is a naturally occurring phospholipid present in the inner leaflet of mammalian plasma membranes. Administration of PS extracted from bovine cortex (BC-PS), which contains high levels o...

    Authors: Veronika Vakhapova, Yael Richter, Tzafra Cohen, Yael Herzog and Amos D Korczyn

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:79

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a heterogeneous clinical entity that comprises the prodromal phase of Alzheimer's disease (Pr-AD). New biomarkers are useful in detecting Pr-AD, but they are not universally ...

    Authors: Ana Pozueta, Eloy Rodríguez-Rodríguez, José Luis Vazquez-Higuera, Ignacio Mateo, Pascual Sánchez-Juan, Soraya González-Perez, José Berciano and Onofre Combarros

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:78

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Decompressive hemicraniectomy is a life-saving procedure for patients with malignant middle cerebral artery infarctions. However, the neuropsychological sequelae in such patients have up to now received little...

    Authors: Holger Schmidt, Trutz Heinemann, Judith Elster, Marija Djukic, Stefan Harscher, Katja Neubieser, Hilmar Prange, Andreas Kastrup and Veit Rohde

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:77

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating form of stroke with the high mortality twofold to sixfold higher than that for ischemic stroke. But the treatment of haematomas within the basal gang...

    Authors: Houguang Zhou, Yu Zhang, Ling Liu, Xu Han, Yinghong Tao, Yuping Tang, Wei Hua, Jianzhong Xue and Qiang Dong

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:76

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Neuroregeneration is a relatively recent concept that includes neurogenesis, neuroplasticity, and neurorestoration - implantation of viable cells as a therapeutical approach.

    Authors: Ana M Enciu, Mihnea I Nicolescu, Catalin G Manole, Dafin F Mureşanu, Laurenţiu M Popescu and Bogdan O Popescu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:75

    Content type: Debate

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  37. There is much discourse in healthcare about the importance of client-centred rehabilitation, however in the realm of community-based therapy post-stroke there has been little investigation into the efficacy of...

    Authors: Christine Graven, Kim Brock, Keith Hill, David Ames, Susan Cotton and Lynette Joubert

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:73

    Content type: Study protocol

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  38. Pregnancy in patients with Parkinson disease is a rare occurrence. To the best of our knowledge, the effect of pregnancy as well as treatment in genetically confirmed autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism ...

    Authors: Takehiro Serikawa, Takayoshi Shimohata, Mami Akashi, Akio Yokoseki, Miwa Tsuchiya, Arika Hasegawa, Kazufumi Haino, Ryoko Koike, Koichi Takakuwa, Keiko Tanaka, Kenichi Tanaka and Masatoyo Nishizawa

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:72

    Content type: Case report

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  39. Intrathecal lidocaine reverses tactile allodynia after nerve injury, but whether neuropathic pain is attenuated by intrathecal lidocaine pretreatment is uncertain.

    Authors: Kuang-I Cheng, Chung-Sheng Lai, Fu-Yuan Wang, Hung-Chen Wang, Lin-Li Chang, Shung-Tai Ho, Hung-Pei Tsai and Aij-Li Kwan

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:71

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting motor neurons in the spinal cord, brainstem and motor cortex, leading to muscle weakness. Muscle weakness may res...

    Authors: Annerieke C van Groenestijn, Ingrid GL van de Port, Carin D Schröder, Marcel WM Post, Hepke F Grupstra, Esther T Kruitwagen, Harmen van der Linde, Reinout O van Vliet, Margreet GH van de Weerd, Leonard H van den Berg and Eline Lindeman

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:70

    Content type: Study protocol

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  41. Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a disease with a wide spectrum of symptoms and severity. In this study we analysed the predictive value of clinical signs and symptoms and the contribution of D-dimer measur...

    Authors: Christian Tanislav, Ralf Siekmann, Nicole Sieweke, Jens Allendörfer, Wolfgang Pabst, Manfred Kaps and Erwin Stolz

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:69

    Content type: Research article

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  42. There is need for a cognitive test battery that can be easily used in clinical practice to detect or monitor cognitive performance in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). In order to conduct, in this patient...

    Authors: Chris Edgar, Peter J Jongen, Evert Sanders, Christian Sindic, Sophie Goffette, Michel Dupuis, Philippe Jacquerye, Daniel Guillaume, Regine Reznik and Keith Wesnes

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:68

    Content type: Research article

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  43. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity and specificity) of clinical, imaging and motor evoked potentials (MEP) for predicting the short-term prognosis of multiple sclerosis (MS).

    Authors: Bartolome Bejarano, Mariangela Bianco, Dolores Gonzalez-Moron, Jorge Sepulcre, Joaquin Goñi, Juan Arcocha, Oscar Soto, Ubaldo Del Carro, Giancarlo Comi, Letizia Leocani and Pablo Villoslada

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:67

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Migraine is a common disorder that often coexists with depression. While a functional polymorphism in methyleneterahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR C677T) has been implicated in depression; the evidence to su...

    Authors: Zainab Samaan, Daria Gaysina, Sarah Cohen-Woods, Nick Craddock, Lisa Jones, Ania Korszun, Mike Owen, Andrew Mente, Peter McGuffin and Anne Farmer

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:66

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Although the soleus (Sol), medial gastrocnemius (MG), and lateral gastrocnemius (LG) muscles differ in function, composition, and innervations, it is a common practice is to investigate them as single H-reflex...

    Authors: Hesham N Alrowayeh, Mohamed A Sabbahi and Bruce Etnyre

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:65

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Event-related potentials (ERPs) may be used as a highly sensitive way of detecting subtle degrees of cognitive dysfunction. On the other hand, impairment of cognitive skills is increasingly recognised as a hal...

    Authors: Javier J Gonzalez-Rosa, Manuel Vazquez-Marrufo, Encarnacion Vaquero, Pablo Duque, Monica Borges, Carlos M Gomez-Gonzalez and Guillermo Izquierdo

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:64

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is a rare lipid-storage disease. Neuromuscular abnormality and autonomic system (ANS) dysfuction in CTX are rarely examined in large-scale studies in the literature. We stu...

    Authors: Shu-Fang Chen, Nai-Wen Tsai, Chung-Chih Chang, Cheng-Hsien Lu, Chi-Ren Huang, Yao-Chung Chuang and Wen-Neng Chang

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2011 11:63

    Content type: Research article

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