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  1. Clinical trials have shown that dexmedetomidine might decrease the occurrence of postoperative delirium after major surgery, but neurosurgical patients were excluded from these studies. We aimed to determine t...

    Authors: Xuan He, Kun-Ming Cheng, Yu-Qing Duan, Shan-Shan Xu, Hao-Ran Gao, Ming-Yue Miao, Hong-Liang Li, Kai Chen, Yan-Lin Yang, Linlin Zhang, Hong-Qiu Gu and Jian-Xin Zhou
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:472
  2. Chronic inflammatory diseases are linked to an increased risk of stroke events. The white blood cell (WBC) count is a common marker of the inflammatory response. However, it is unclear whether the WBC count, i...

    Authors: Zhi-bing Hu, Ze-xiong Lu, Feng Zhu, Cao-qiang Jiang, Wei-sen Zhang, Jin Pan, Ya-li Jin, Lin Xu, G. Neil Thomas, Karkeung Cheng and Taihing Lam
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:470
  3. Rett syndrome (RTT) is characterized by a normal perinatal period with a normal head size at birth followed by normal development for the first 6 months of life followed by gradual deceleration of head growth,...

    Authors: Jhanvi Shah, Harsh Patel, Deepika Jain, Frenny Sheth and Harsh Sheth
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:469
  4. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that results in progressive and irreversible disability. Fatigue is one of the most common MS-related symptoms and is c...

    Authors: Abril Oliva Ramirez, Alexander Keenan, Olivia Kalau, Evelyn Worthington, Lucas Cohen and Sumeet Singh
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:468
  5. Non-dystrophic myotonias (NDMs) comprise muscle chloride and sodium channelopathies due to genetic defects of the CLCN1- and SCN4A-channels. No licensed antimyotonic treatment has been available until approval...

    Authors: Ann-Marie Chapman, Marieke Schurer, Laure Weijers, Amer Omar, Hiba Lee, Alla Zozulya Weidenfeller, Crispin Ellis, Shaneil Sonecha and Christiane Schneider-Gold
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:467
  6. Malnutrition as a result of insufficient intake or uptake of nutrition leads to increasing rate of chronic diseases such as stroke. Stroke is one of the most common causes of death in western countries and its...

    Authors: Mahsa Mahmoudinezhad, Mohammad Khalili, Nasim Rezaeemanesh, Mehdi Farhoudi and Sharareh Eskandarieh
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:466
  7. Arterial Tortuosity Syndrome (ATS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by elongated and tortuous arteries. Although ATS showed a significant clinical and pathophysiological overlap with other ...

    Authors: Stefano Cotti Piccinelli, Enrico Premi, Sonia Bonacina, Nicola Gilberti, Veronica Vergani, Massimo Gamba, Raffaella Spezi, Ilenia Delrio, Michaël Bernier, Angelo Costa, Marco Ravanelli, Marina Colombi, Roberto Gasparotti, Alessandro Padovani and Mauro Magoni
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:464
  8. The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the new Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a pandemic, affecting the therapeutic management for Multiple Sclerosis (MS). A...

    Authors: Clara G. Chisari, Simona Toscano, Sebastiano Arena, Chiara Finocchiaro, Arturo Montineri and Francesco Patti
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:462
  9. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between tumor biology and values of cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral blood flow (CBF), mean transit time (MTT), time to peak (TTP), permeability s...

    Authors: Ke Wang, Yeming Li, Haiyang Cheng, Shenjie Li, Wei Xiang, Yang Ming, Ligang Chen and Jie Zhou
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:460
  10. Dopamine transporter single-photon emission computed tomography (DaT-SPECT) can quantify the functional integrity of the dopaminergic nerve terminals and has been suggested as an imaging modality to verify the...

    Authors: R. Matthew Hutchison, Karleyton C. Evans, Tara Fox, Minhua Yang, Jerome Barakos, Barry J. Bedell, Jesse M. Cedarbaum, Miroslaw Brys, Andrew Siderowf and Anthony E. Lang
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:459
  11. Interleukin-6-receptor inhibitors like Tocilizumab and Satralizumab are showing promising results in the treatment of Neuromyelitis Optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). We aimed to investigate the efficacy and sa...

    Authors: Sanjeev Kharel, Suraj Shrestha, Rajeev Ojha, Neha Guragain and Rakesh Ghimire
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:458
  12. Primary orthostatic tremor (OT) is a rare movement disorder characterized by a 13–18 Hz leg tremor, which arises when standing and is relieved by walking/sitting. Those affected generally do not fall, but expe...

    Authors: Nicholas E. Calvo and Joseph M. Ferrara
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:457
  13. This study aimed to assess the prognostic value regarding neurologic outcome of CT neuroimaging based Gray-White-Matter-Ratio measurement in patients after resuscitation from cardiac arrest.

    Authors: Konrad Kirsch, Stefan Heymel, Albrecht Günther, Kathleen Vahl, Thorsten Schmidt, Dominik Michalski, Michael Fritzenwanger, Paul Christian Schulze and Rüdiger Pfeifer
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:456
  14. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Man Chen, Jinghuan Fang, Xintong Wu, Qin Liu, Ling Feng and Li He
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:455

    The original article was published in BMC Neurology 2021 21:365

  15. Anaemia has been reported to be associated with cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but the associations between anaemia and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) AD biomarkers are still unknown. This study ai...

    Authors: Xin-Yu Yang, Xiao-He Hou, Yan-Lin Bi, Hao Hu, Xi-Peng Cao, Lan Tan, Jiu-Long Yang and Jin-Tai Yu
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:454
  16. It remains a matter of debate whether traditional concepts regarding the nature of food affect the development and progression of multiple sclerosis (MS).To date, there are limited studies that have investigat...

    Authors: Mohammad Hossein Sharifi, Parisa Keshani, Alireza Salehi, Amir Mohammad Jaladat, Zahra Mirzaei and Alireza Nikseresht
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:453
  17. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), began in late 2019. One of the vaccines approved against COVID-19 is the BNT162b2 mRNA ...

    Authors: Yamato Nishiguchi, Hirofumi Matsuyama, Kuniko Maeda, Akihiro Shindo and Hidekazu Tomimoto
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:452
  18. The diagnosis of neurosyphilis is challenging due to the requirement of a lumbar puncture and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) laboratory tests. Therefore, a convenient diagnostic nomogram for neurosyphilis is warran...

    Authors: Wenjing Ge, Yang Zhang, Chao Peng, Dongdong Li, Lijie Gao, Jiajia Bao, Changling Li, Ning Chen, Dong Zhou and Li He
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:451
  19. Non-progressive dysarthria is an acquired motor speech disorder resulting from neurological diseases such as stroke and traumatic brain injury. The evidence base for the assessment of non-progressive dysarthri...

    Authors: Marwa Summaka, Hayat Harati, Salem Hannoun, Hiba Zein, Nour Koubaisy, Youssef Fares and Zeina Nasser
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:450
  20. Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is an important disease leading to morbidity, disability and mortality that primarily affects children and immune-depressed patients. Specific neuromarkers predicting outcomes, sev...

    Authors: Giacomo Stroffolini, Giulia Guastamacchia, Sabrina Audagnotto, Cristiana Atzori, Mattia Trunfio, Marco Nigra, Alessandro Di Stefano, Giovanni Di Perri and Andrea Calcagno
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:449
  21. Tacrolimus is a macrolide immunosuppressant widely used to prevent rejection after solid organ transplantation. In general, adverse events of tacrolimus occur more often as the concentration of tacrolimus in t...

    Authors: Bora Jin, Ga Yeon Kim and Sang-Myung Cheon
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:448
  22. Median overall survival (OS) after diagnosis of glioblastoma (GBM) remains 15 months amongst patients receiving aggressive surgical resection, chemotherapy and irradiation. Treatment of patients with a poor pr...

    Authors: Melanie Barz, Julia Gerhardt, Stefanie Bette, A. Kaywan Aftahy, Thomas Huber, Stephanie E. Combs, Yu-Mi Ryang, Benedikt Wiestler, Marco Skardelly, Irina Gepfner-Tuma, Felix Behling, Friederike Schmidt-Graf, Bernhard Meyer and Jens Gempt
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:446
  23. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) represents a transient change in mental status with associated vasogenic edema of cortical and subcortical brain structures. It is often attributed to multif...

    Authors: Nicholas Dietz, Zarmina Mufti, Muhammed Yousaf, Randal Brown, Christopher Counts, Martin F. Bjurström, Brian J. Williams and David Robertson
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:445
  24. The prevalence of migraine headaches varied from 2.4 to 48.5% worldwide among university students. As per the knowledge of the investigators, the study of migraine headaches is not done in this study area. Hen...

    Authors: Mengesha Birkie, Mohammed Endris and Sintayehu Asnakew
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:443
  25. Surgery may render temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients seizure-free. However, TLE is a heterogenous entity and surgical prognosis varies between patients. Network-based biomarkers have been shown to be alter...

    Authors: Jacint Sala-Padro, Júlia Miró, Antoni Rodriguez-Fornells, Xavier Rifa-Ros, Gerard Plans, Mila Santurino, Mercè Falip and Estela Càmara
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:442
  26. Fasciculation is an important sign for the diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Our study aimed to analyze the difference in fasciculation detected with muscle ultrasonography (MUS) between ALS pa...

    Authors: Jingwen Liu, Yi Li, Jingwen Niu, Lei Zhang, Jing Fan, Yuzhou Guan, Liying Cui and Mingsheng Liu
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:441
  27. Patients with acute non-lacunar single subcortical infarct (SSI) associated with mild intracranial atherosclerosis (ICAS) have a relatively high incidence of early neurological deterioration (END), resulting i...

    Authors: Peng-Fei Wang, Zhuo-Ran Sun, Jin-Chao Yu, Na Geng, Ling-Yun Liu, Li-Na Zhu, Jing Li, Hai-Cheng Yuan, Guo-chen Zhao and Zhen-Guang Li
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:440
  28. Spastic paraplegia type 4 (SPG4) is caused by mutations in the SPAST gene, is the most common form of autosomal-dominant pure hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSP), and is rarely associated with a complicated form...

    Authors: Haitian Nan, Hiroshi Shiraku, Tomoko Mizuno and Yoshihisa Takiyama
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:439
  29. Glioma is the most common primary intracranial tumor. Owing to the poor prognosis associated with high-grade gliomas, there is an urgent need to identify biomarkers related to prognosis and treatment sensitivi...

    Authors: Kaijia Zhou, Tao Jiang, Yanwei Liu, Zheng Zhao, Lijie Huang and Guanzhang Li
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:438
  30. Early identification of massive middle cerebral artery infarction (MCAI) at risk for malignant MCAI (m-MCAI) may be useful in selecting patients for aggressive therapies. The aim of this study was to determine...

    Authors: Xingyang Yi, Qiang Zhou, Ting Qing, Bing Ming, Jing Lin, Jie Li and Jie Lin
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:437
  31. Cerebral small vascular disease (CSVD) is one of the leading causes of death in the aged population and is closely related to abnormalities in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Our study aims to cla...

    Authors: Xiaorong Yu, Yanhua Yu, Cunsheng Wei, Lin Wang, Junying Jiang, Rui Zhang, Qi Dai, Yue Kang and Xuemei Chen
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:436
  32. There is rare reports about opinions and clinical practice of functional movement disorders (FMD) in China. The present survey aimed to investigate the views of FMD in Chinese clinicians.

    Authors: Xin-Yi Xie, Guo-zhen Lin, Qiang Huang, Chun-Bo Li, Mark Hallett, Valerie Voon, Ru-jing Ren, Sheng-di Chen and Gang Wang
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:435
  33. Stroke related deaths are relatively higher in low- and middle-income countries where only a fraction of eligible patients undergo thrombolysis. There is also limited evidence on post-thrombolysis outcomes of ...

    Authors: H. M. M. T. B. Herath, Chaturaka Rodrigo, A. M. B. D. Alahakoon, Sathyajith Buddhika Ambawatte, Sunethra Senanayake, Bimsara Senanayake and Arjuna Fernando
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:434
  34. The evolution of cognitive impairment of vascular origin is increasingly becoming a prominent health threat particularly in this era where hypertension is the leading contributor of global disease burden and o...

    Authors: Pedro Pallangyo, Zabella S. Mkojera, Makrina Komba, Lucy R. Mgopa, Smita Bhalia, Henry Mayala, Salma Wibonela, Nsajigwa Misidai, Happiness J. Swai, Jalack Millinga, Ester Chavala, Peter R. Kisenge and Mohamed Janabi
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:433
  35. Contrast-induced encephalopathy (CIE) is a rare complication of the angiography process. CIE may mimic stroke symptoms clinically and subarachnoid hemorrhage radiologically. Previous CIE cases occurred after t...

    Authors: Jiaying Li, Guanshu Qi, Huani Zhang, Gang Chen, Shuting Wang, Minli Yan and Zhichao Sun
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:430
  36. Exploration of the healthcare journey post-stroke is incomplete without acknowledging the crucial role of family caregivers. With limited literature documenting the role of caregivers in the healthcare journey...

    Authors: Shilpa Tyagi, Nan Luo, Chuen Seng Tan, Kelvin Bryan Tan, Boon Yeow Tan, Edward Menon, N. Venketasubramanian, Wei Chin Loh, Shu Hui Fan, Kenneth Lam Thuan Yang, Audrey Swee Ling Chan, Aysha Farwin, Zunairah Binti Lukman and Gerald Choon-Huat Koh
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:429
  37. To summarize the clinical characteristics of patients with muscle-specific kinase antibody-associated myasthenia gravis (MuSK-MG) and to evaluate the therapeutic responses to different treatment regimes.

    Authors: Sijia Zhao, Kai Zhang, Kaixi Ren, Jiarui Lu, Chao Ma, Cong Zhao, Zhuyi Li and Jun Guo
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:428
  38. Neurological manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are increasingly recognized and include encephalopathy, although direct infection of the brain by SARS-CoV-2 remains controversial. We herein ...

    Authors: Takuya Kudo, Yuichi Hayashi, Kenjiro Kunieda, Nobuaki Yoshikura, Akio Kimura, Mika Otsuki and Takayoshi Shimohata
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:426
  39. A synthesis of real-world discontinuation and switching patterns among triptan users and rates of acute medication use among patients with medication overuse headache (MOH) is needed to better understand the b...

    Authors: Alison M. Deighton, Linda A. Harris, Karissa Johnston, Shomari Hogan, Lynn A. Quaranta, Gilbert L’Italien and Vlad Coric
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:425
  40. The Cognitive Reserve (CR) theory posits that brains with higher reserve can cope with more cerebral damage to minimize clinical manifestations. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of education (CR...

    Authors: Wanqiu Zhu, Xiaoshu Li, Xiaohu Li, Haibao Wang, Meiqin Li, Ziwen Gao, Xingqi Wu, Yanghua Tian, Shanshan Zhou, Kai Wang and Yongqiang Yu
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:423

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