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  1. Content type: Correction

    Following publication of the original article [1], the authors reported errors in reference citations found in Table 1.

    Authors: Carolin Siegert, Björn Hauptmann, Nicole Jochems, Andreas Schrader and Ruth Deck

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:199

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    The original article was published in BMC Neurology 2019 19:143

  2. Content type: Case report

    Myofibrillar myopathies (MFMs) are a genetically heterogeneous group of muscle disorders. Mutations in the filamin C gene (FLNC) have previously been identified in patients with MFM. The phenotypes of FLNC-relate...

    Authors: Juanjuan Chen, Jun Wu, Chunxi Han, Yao Li, Yuzu Guo and Xiaoxin Tong

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:198

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Mechanical thrombectomy (MT) using stent retriever assisted vacuum-locked extraction (SAVE) is a promising method for anterior circulation strokes. We present our experience with SAVE for large vessel occlusio...

    Authors: Volker Maus, Hanna Styczen, Jan Liman, Ilko Maier, Alex Brehm, Ioannis Tsogkas and Marios-Nikos Psychogios

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:197

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  4. Content type: Study protocol

    Recovery of upper limb function in individuals after a stroke remains challenging. Modified constraint-induced movement therapy (m-CIMT) has strong evidence for increasing the use and recovery of sensorimotor ...

    Authors: Erika Shirley Moreira da Silva, Gabriela Lopes Santos, Aparecida Maria Catai, Alexandra Borstad, Natália Pereira Duarte Furtado, Isabela Arruda Verzola Aniceto and Thiago Luiz Russo

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:196

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  5. Content type: Research article

    Previous studies have shown that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with a higher risk of cognitive impairment or dementia in the elderly, leading to deleterious health effects and decreasing quality ...

    Authors: Talha Mubashir, Lusine Abrahamyan, Ayan Niazi, Deween Piyasena, Abdul A. Arif, Jean Wong, Ricardo S. Osorio, Clodagh M. Ryan and Frances Chung

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:195

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  6. Content type: Case report

    Emotional processes and responses are underestimated in stroke patients because the massive clinical picture of large hemispheric strokes often hides these symptoms. We report on a patient with peculiar unplea...

    Authors: Mariagiovanna Cantone, Giuseppe Lanza, Rita Bella, Giovanni Pennisi, Paola Santalucia, Placido Bramanti and Manuela Pennisi

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:193

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  7. Content type: Research article

    Neurological disorders are the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Available evidence on urban–rural differences on neurological diseases is scare in such countries. Our study...

    Authors: Safia Awan, Alam Ibrahim Siddiqi, Ahmed Asif, Naveeduddin Ahmed, Hazim Brohi, Sajad Jalbani and Mohammad Wasay

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:192

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  8. Content type: Research article

    We studied the efficacy and safety of a second dose of lasmiditan for acute treatment of migraine.

    Authors: Li Shen Loo, Brian M. Plato, Ira M. Turner, Michael G. Case, Joel Raskin, Sherie A. Dowsett and John H. Krege

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:191

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  9. Content type: Case report

    Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare complication of patients treated with fingolimod.

    Authors: Tim Sinnecker, Jeffrie Hadisurya, Tilman Schneider-Hohendorf, Nicholas Schwab, Karsten Wrede, Oliver Gembruch, Ralf Gold, Kerstin Hellwig, Sara Pilgram-Pastor, Ortwin Adams, Philipp Albrecht, Hans-Peter Hartung, Orhan Aktas and Markus Kraemer

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:190

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  10. Content type: Case report

    Lumbosacral lipomas (LLs) may remain asymptomatic or lead to progressive neurological deterioration. However, sudden neurological deterioration is a rare and severe event. Herein, we report rare occurrences of...

    Authors: Luca Massimi, Thailane Maria Feitosa Chaves, François Yves Legninda Sop, Paolo Frassanito, Gianpiero Tamburrini and Massimo Caldarelli

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:189

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  11. Content type: Case report

    Presenilin-1 (PSEN1) is one of the causative genes for early onset Alzheimer’s disease (EOAD). Recently, emerging studies reported several novel PSEN1 mutations among Asian. We describe a male with EOAD had a ...

    Authors: Vo Van Giau, Jung-Min Pyun, Jeewon Suh, Eva Bagyinszky, Seong Soo A. An and Sang Yun Kim

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:188

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Stroke is the second-leading global cause of death behind heart disease in 2013 and is a major cause of permanent disability. The burden of stroke in terms of mortality, morbidity and disability is increasing ...

    Authors: Ginenus Fekadu, Legese Chelkeba and Ayantu Kebede

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:187

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  13. Content type: Research article

    The topographic location of acute pontine infarction is associated with clinical syndromes and prognosis. Previous studies focused on isolated pontine infarction, but the topographic location of unisolated pon...

    Authors: Jiehong Huang, Zhihua Qiu, Piansi Zhou, Jianming Li, Yingxin Chen, Ruiyun Huang, Chujing Li, Xilin Ouyang, Huazhuo Feng, Hanqing Xu, Dezhi Liu, Zheng Dai, Juehua Zhu, Xinfeng Liu, Hongbing Chen and Yongjun Jiang

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:186

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  14. Content type: Research article

    Interleukin 36 (IL-36) cytokines belong to the IL-1 family and play an important role in some autoimmune diseases. However, the relationship between IL-36 and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) re...

    Authors: Chun-Sheng Yang, Qiu xia Zhang, Yu Deng, Bing jie Zhou, Lin jie Zhang, Li min Li, Yuan Qi, Jing Wang, Li Yang and Fu-Dong Shi

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:185

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  15. Content type: Case report

    Pembrolizumab is an immune-checkpoints inhibitor that enhances the immune response against cancer cells and therefore is useful for the treatment of several carcinomas. However, pembrolizumab sometimes perturb...

    Authors: Hikaru Kamo, Taku Hatano, Kazuaki Kanai, Nozomi Aoki, Daiki Kamiyama, Kazumasa Yokoyama, Masashi Takanashi, Yuri Yamashita, Yasushi Shimo and Nobutaka Hattori

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:184

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Stroke is the second-leading global cause of death behind heart disease in 2013 and is a major cause of permanent disability. The burden of stroke in terms of mortality, morbidity and disability is increasing ...

    Authors: Ginenus Fekadu, Legese Chelkeba and Ayantu Kebede

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:183

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  17. Content type: Case report

    Hypothalamic lesions, such as tumors and demyelinating diseases, reportedly cause abnormal sleepiness. However, stroke involving the hypothalamus has rarely been described. Here, we report a patient with infar...

    Authors: Takeo Matsubara, Keisuke Suzuki, Akiko Kawasaki, Masayuki Miyamoto, Madoka Okamura, Takashi Kanbayashi, Hidehiro Takekawa, Toshiki Nakamura, Yuji Watanabe, Masanori Matsubara and Koichi Hirata

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:182

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  18. Content type: Research article

    Optimizing thrombolytic therapy is vital for improving stroke outcomes. We aimed to develop standardized thrombolysis conditions to evaluate the efficacy of tenecteplase (TNK) compared to the current gold stan...

    Authors: Tobias Frühwald, Ulrich Gärtner, Nils Stöckmann, Jan-Henning Marxsen, Carolin Gramsch and Florian C. Roessler

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:181

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  19. Content type: Research article

    This study examined how intracranial large artery stenosis (ILAS), symptomatic and asymptomatic ILAS, and risk factors affect unfavorable outcome events after medical treatment in routine clinical practice.

    Authors: K. C. Chang, I. C. Chuang, Y. C. Huang, C. Y. Wu, W. C. Lin, Y. L. Kuo, T. H. Lee and S. J. Ryu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:180

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  20. Content type: Study protocol

    Cognitive dysfunction is highly prevalent in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and a large proportion of patients eventually develops PD-related dementia. Currently, no effective treatment is available. Cognitive train...

    Authors: Tim D. van Balkom, Henk W. Berendse, Ysbrand D. van der Werf, Jos W. R. Twisk, Iris Zijlstra, Rob H. Hagen, Tanja Berk, Chris Vriend and Odile A. van den Heuvel

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:179

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  21. Content type: Research article

    B-mode and Color Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS) are the methods of choice for screening and determining the degree of Carotid artery stenosis. The evaluation of stenosis with calcification may be hampered by a...

    Authors: Estelle E. Seyman, Natan Bornstein, Eitan Auriel, Oren Cohen, Tania Nissel and Hen Hallevi

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:178

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  22. Content type: Research article

    Insulin resistance (IR) in relation to diabetes is a risk factor for ischemic stroke (IS), whereas less is known about non-diabetic IR and outcome after IS.

    Authors: Daniel Åberg, N. David Åberg, Katarina Jood, Lukas Holmegaard, Petra Redfors, Christian Blomstrand, Jörgen Isgaard, Christina Jern and Johan Svensson

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:177

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  23. Content type: Research article

    Elevated levels of plasma D-dimer increase the risk of ischemic stroke, stroke severity, and the progression of stroke status, but the association between plasma D-dimer level and functional outcome is unclear...

    Authors: Tao Yao, Bo-Lin Tian, Gang Li, Qin Cui, Cui-fang Wang, Qi Zhang, Bo Peng, Yan Gao, Yan-Qiang Zhan, Dan Hu, Lu Xu and Gao-Hua Wang

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:175

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  24. Content type: Research article

    Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a serious, often irreversible movement disorder caused by prolonged exposure to antipsychotics; identifying patients at risk for TD is critical to preventing it. Predictive models fo...

    Authors: Oscar Patterson-Lomba, Rajeev Ayyagari and Benjamin Carroll

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:174

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  25. Content type: Research article

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients often struggle with treatment decisions, in part due to the increasing number of approved disease modifying therapies, each with different characteristics, and also since physi...

    Authors: Nick Bansback, Judy A. Chiu, Robert Carruthers, Rebecca Metcalfe, Emmanuelle Lapointe, Alice Schabas, Marilyn Lenzen, Larry D. Lynd and Anthony Traboulsee

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:173

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  26. Content type: Research article

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a life-changing experience for the individuals with SCI and their families. This study aimed to investigate physical strategies used for overcoming physical disability in individual...

    Authors: Alireza Nikbakht-Nasrabadi, Nooredin Mohammadi, Manijeh Yazdanshenas and Maryam Shabany

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:171

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  27. Content type: Research article

    Myasthenia gravis is the most common disease affecting the neuromuscular junction. The most common etiology among patients with juvenile myasthenia gravis is the production of antibodies against the acetylchol...

    Authors: Cheng-Che Chou, I-Chen Su, I-Jun Chou, Jainn-Jim Lin, Shih-Yun Lan, Yi-Shan Wang, Shu-Sing Kong, Yun-Ju Chen, Meng-Ying Hsieh, Po-Cheng Hung, Huei-Shyong Wang, Min-Liang Chou and Kuang-Lin Lin

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:170

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  28. Content type: Case report

    The coexistence of distinct neurodegenerative diseases in single cases has recently attracted greater attention. The phenotypic co-occurrence of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and amyotrophic lateral scl...

    Authors: Koji Fujita, Tomoyasu Matsubara, Ryosuke Miyamoto, Hiroyuki Sumikura, Toshiaki Takeuchi, Keiko Maruyama Saladini, Toshitaka Kawarai, Hiroyuki Nodera, Fukashi Udaka, Kodai Kume, Hiroyuki Morino, Hideshi Kawakami, Masato Hasegawa, Ryuji Kaji, Shigeo Murayama and Yuishin Izumi

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:168

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  29. Content type: Research article

    Higher circulating levels of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1 early after ischemic stroke have been associated with lower survival. The objectives of this study were to determine serum TI...

    Authors: Leonardo Lorente, María M. Martín, Luis Ramos, Mónica Argueso, Juan J. Cáceres, Jordi Solé-Violán, Alejandro Jiménez, Juan M. Borreguero-León, Agustín F. González-Rivero, Josune Orbe, José A. Rodríguez and José A. Páramo

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:167

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  30. Content type: Case report

    Acquired epileptiform opercular syndrome (AEOS) with electrical status epilepticus during sleep (ESES) may be recurrent and intractable. The real-time transcranial Doppler ultrasound–sleep-deprived video elect...

    Authors: Bing-Wei Peng, Hui-Ci Liang, Jia-Ling Li, Si-Yuan Yang, Wei Liang, Feng-Qiong Zhang and Wen-Xiong Chen

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:166

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  31. Content type: Research article

    Nowadays, few surgery analysis has been reported in cases of epilepsy after viral encephalitis(VE). Herein, this study was to evaluate the efficacy of surgery and capability of stereoelectroencephalography (SE...

    Authors: Yi-Ou Liu, Wen-Jing Zhou, Bo Hong, Tong Zhao and Yue-feng Wang

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:165

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  32. Content type: Research article

    The exact relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH) D] levels and small vessel disease (SVD) are not clear in China. The aim of this study was to determine such the association between 25(OH) D and SVD ...

    Authors: Junzeng Si, Kuibao Li, Peiyan Shan and Junliang Yuan

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:164

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  33. Content type: Research article

    Patients with vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia usually have persistent hemodynamic abnormalities, and therefore, may bear an increased risk of stroke. This study aimed to identify risk factors for stroke recurre...

    Authors: Zhaoyao Chen, Shuai Zhang, Zhengze Dai, Xi Cheng, Minghua Wu, Qiliang Dai, Xinfeng Liu and Gelin Xu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:163

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  34. Content type: Research article

    Paroxysmal Sympathetic Hyperactivity (PSH) is a frequently observed condition among critically ill patients on intensive care units. According to different studies, PSH is associated with worse recovery and in...

    Authors: Alan Totikov, Melanie Boltzmann, Simone B. Schmidt and Jens D. Rollnik

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:162

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  35. Content type: Research article

    Epilepsy is a common neurological disease with substantial impact on the subject and their caretakers. This exploratory study identified barriers to care for persons living with epilepsy (PLWE) to develop a cu...

    Authors: Mark Kaddumukasa, Haddy Nalubwama, Martin N. Kaddumukasa, Samden Lhatoo, Nelson Sewankambo, Elly Katabira, Martha Sajatovic and Carol Blixen

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:161

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  36. Content type: Study protocol

    Our understanding of the etiology, pathophysiology, phenotypic diversity, and progression of Parkinson’s disease has stagnated. Consequently, patients do not receive the best care, leading to unnecessary disab...

    Authors: B. R. Bloem, W. J. Marks Jr., A. L. Silva de Lima, M. L. Kuijf, T. van Laar, B. P. F. Jacobs, M. M. Verbeek, R. C. Helmich, B. P. van de Warrenburg, L. J. W. Evers, J. intHout, T. van de Zande, T. M. Snyder, R. Kapur and M. J. Meinders

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:160

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  37. Content type: Research article

    Glatiramer acetate (GA) is one of the first therapies approved for multiple sclerosis (MS). We prospectively included and monitored drug-naïve and pre-treated MS patients who had been prescribed GA for 1 year,...

    Authors: Chiara Zecca, Giulio Disanto, Rosaria Sacco, Gianna C. Riccitelli and Claudio Gobbi

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:159

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  38. Content type: Research article

    Hereditary ataxia is a group of neurodegenerative diseases with progressive cerebellar ataxia of the gait and limbs as the main symptoms. The genetic patterns of the disease are diverse but it is mainly divide...

    Authors: Jiajun Chen, Yajuan Sun, Xiaoyang Liu and Jia Li

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:157

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  39. Content type: Case report

    Loss-of-function mutations in the CLCN2 gene were recently discovered to be a cause of a type of leukodystrophy named CLCN2-related leukoencephalopathy (CC2L), which is characterized by intramyelinic edema. Herei...

    Authors: Zhuoxin Guo, Tingting Lu, Lisheng Peng, Huanhuan Cheng, Fuhua Peng, Jin Li, Zhengqi Lu, Shaoqiong Chen and Wei Qiu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:156

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  40. Content type: Research article

    Intravenous thrombolysis has been recently introduced in Nepal for the management of acute ischemic stroke. Pre-hospital delay is one of the main reasons that hinder thrombolytic therapy. The objective of this...

    Authors: Gaurav Nepal, Jayant Kumar Yadav, Babin Basnet, Tirtha Man Shrestha, Ghanshyam Kharel and Rajeev Ojha

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:155

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  41. Content type: Case report

    Multiple Mitochondrial Dysfunctions Syndrome 4 (MMDS4) is manifested as a result of ISCA2 mutations. ISCA2 is a vital component of 4Fe-4S clusters assembly machine. Therefore, in MMDS4 patients, deficient mitocho...

    Authors: Milad Eidi and Masoud Garshasbi

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:153

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  42. Content type: Case report

    Simultaneous cerebral and myocardial infarction is called cardiocerebral infarction (CCI), and is rarely encountered. Because of the narrow time window and complex pathophysiology, CCI is challenging to immedi...

    Authors: Soichiro Abe, Kanta Tanaka, Hiroshi Yamagami, Kazutaka Sonoda, Hiroya Hayashi, Shuichi Yoneda, Kazunori Toyoda and Masatoshi Koga

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:152

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  43. Content type: Research article

    This study aimed to investigate the cerebral blood flow (CBF) and frontal lobe cognitive function in severe internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis patients with different types of collateral circulation.

    Authors: Wei Wei, Xingyang Yi, Jianghai Ruan, Xiaodong Duan, Hua Luo and Zhiyu Lv

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:151

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  44. Content type: Research article

    Mechanical thrombectomy has been proven as a standard care for moderate to severe ischemic stroke with anterior large vessel occlusion (LVO); however, whether it is equally effective in mild ischemic stroke (M...

    Authors: Xian-Jin Shang, Zhong-Hua Shi, Cai-Feng He, Shuai Zhang, Yong-Jie Bai, Yong-Tao Guo, Bo Sun, Shun Li, Huai-Ming Wang, Zhi-Ming Zhou, Wen-Jie Zi and Xin-Feng Liu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:150

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