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  1. Primary intracranial neuroendocrine tumors are exceedingly rare, with few cases in the literature. We present a case of a primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the pineal gland, which is the second that has ever...

    Authors: Angela Cheng, Jane Barron, Oliver Holmes, Peter Bartlett, Gregory Jenkins and Melanie Seal

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:323

    Content type: Case report

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  2. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) development has reduced the severity of neurological complications of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but they remain prevalent and need prompt recognition. Acute inflammat...

    Authors: Mariana Lopes, Patrícia Marques, Bruno Silva, Gonçalo Cruz, José Eduardo Serra, Eugenia Ferreira, Helena Alves and José Saraiva da Cunha

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:321

    Content type: Case report

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  3. The cerebellum receives afferent signals from spinocerebellar pathways regulating lower limb movements. However, the longitudinal changes in the spinocerebellar pathway in the early stage of unilateral suprate...

    Authors: Gang Liu, Yaomin Guo, Chao Dang, Kangqiang Peng, Shuangquan Tan, Chuanmiao Xie, Shihui Xing and Jinsheng Zeng

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:320

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Antiplatelet drugs may prevent recurrent ischemic events after ischemic stroke but their relative effectiveness and harms still need to be clarified. Within this network meta-analysis we aimed to summarize the...

    Authors: Cinzia Del Giovane, Giorgio B. Boncoraglio, Lorenza Bertù, Rita Banzi and Irene Tramacere

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:319

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Sedentary behaviour is associated with disease, but the molecular mechanisms are not understood. Valid biomarkers with predictive and explanatory properties are required. Therefore, we have investigated tradit...

    Authors: Katinka Nordheim Alme, Torunn Askim, Jörg Assmus, Tom Eirik Mollnes, Mala Naik, Halvor Næss, Ingvild Saltvedt, Per-Magne Ueland, Arve Ulvik and Anne-Brita Knapskog

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:318

    Content type: Research

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  6. People with multiple sclerosis (MS) experience a wide range of unpredictable and variable symptoms. The symptomatology of MS has previously been reported in large sample registry studies; however, some symptom...

    Authors: S. Gustavsen, A. Olsson, H. B. Søndergaard, S. R. Andresen, P. S. Sørensen, F. Sellebjerg and A. Oturai

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:317

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Authors: Christopher Dardis, David Donner, Nader Sanai, Joanne Xiu, Sandeep Mittal, Sharon K. Michelhaugh, Manjari Pandey, Santosh Kesari, Amy B. Heimberger, Zoran Gatalica, Michael W. Korn, Ashley L. Sumrall and Surasak Phuphanich

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:316

    Content type: Publisher Correction

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    The original article was published in BMC Neurology 2021 21:231

  8. Levels of self-reported health do not always correlate with levels of physical disability in stroke survivors. We aimed to explore what underlies the difference between subjective self-reported health and obje...

    Authors: Nahal Mavaddat, Euan Sadler, Lisa Lim, Kate Williams, Elizabeth Warburton, Ann Louise Kinmonth, Chris Mckevitt and Jonathan Mant

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:315

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is a neurological complication of untreated Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection or exposure to certain antiretroviral drugs. In Tanzania where HIV is a major public health p...

    Authors: Insiyah A Amiji, Helga E Naburi, Edward Kija and Livin P Mumburi

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:314

    Content type: Research

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  10. SELENON (SEPN1)-related myopathy (SELENON-RM) is a rare congenital myopathy characterized by slowly progressive proximal muscle weakness, early onset spine rigidity and respiratory insufficiency. A muscular dy...

    Authors: Karlijn Bouman, Jan T. Groothuis, Jonne Doorduin, Nens van Alfen, Floris E. A. Udink ten Cate, Frederik M. A. van den Heuvel, Robin Nijveldt, Willem C. M. van Tilburg, Stan C. F. M. Buckens, Anne T. M. Dittrich, Jos M. T. Draaisma, Mirian C. H. Janssen, Erik-Jan Kamsteeg, Esmee S. B. van Kleef, Saskia Koene, Jan A. M. Smeitink…

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:313

    Content type: Study protocol

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  11. Brain age is a biomarker that predicts chronological age using neuroimaging features. Deviations of this predicted age from chronological age is considered a sign of age-related brain changes, or commonly refe...

    Authors: Jo Wrigglesworth, Phillip Ward, Ian H. Harding, Dinuli Nilaweera, Zimu Wu, Robyn L. Woods and Joanne Ryan

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:312

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are detected on gradient-echo T2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Clinically, CMBs are often detected after stroke, including in cases of intracerebral hemorrhage and isc...

    Authors: Toshihide Naganuma, Daijiro Kabata, Yoshiaki Takemoto, Junji Uchida and Ayumi Shintani

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:311

    Content type: Research

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  13. Extracranial carotid artery disease is considered a risk factor for developing acute cerebrovascular diseases. The paper suggests the “Stroke-Stop” formula as hypothesis for the determination of the risk of de...

    Authors: Іvan Kopolovets, Peter Berek, Peter Stefanic, Dmytro Lotnyk, Rastislav Mucha, Zdenka Hertelyova, Stefan Toth, Nadiya Boyko and Vladimir Sihotsky

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:310

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Multiple Sclerosis (MS) remains to be a public health challenge, due to its unknown biological mechanisms and clinical impacts on young people. The prevalence of this disease in Iran is reported to be 5.30 to ...

    Authors: Naeimehossadat Asmarian, Zahra Sharafi, Amin Mousavi, Reis Jacques, Ibon Tamayo, Marie-Abèle Bind, Marzie Abutorabi-zarchi, Mohammad Javad Moradian and Sadegh Izadi

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:309

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most lethal form of tuberculosis worldwide. Data on critically ill TBM patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) of China are lacking. We tried to identify prognostic factor...

    Authors: Baobao Feng, Xiao Fei, Ying Sun, Xingguo Zhang, Deya Shang, Yi Zhou, Meiyan Sheng, Jiarui Xu, Wei Zhang and Wanhua Ren

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:308

    Content type: Research article

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  16. To summarize the safety and effectiveness of high flow extracranial to intracranial saphenous vein bypass grafting in the treatment of complex intracranial aneurysms.

    Authors: Jibo Zhang, Yu Feng, Wenyuan Zhao, Kui Liu and Jincao Chen

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:307

    Content type: Technical advance

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  17. The investigation of CO2 reactivity (CO2-CVR) is used in the setting of, e.g., traumatic brain injury (TBI). Transcranial color-coded duplex sonography (TCCD) is a promising bedside tool for monitoring cerebral h...

    Authors: Stephanie Klinzing, Federica Stretti, Alberto Pagnamenta, Markus Bèchir and Giovanna Brandi

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:305

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the most common cause of acute viral hepatitis worldwide. An association with neuralgic amyotrophy and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) was previously described. Concerning GBS, studies...

    Authors: Miriam Fritz-Weltin, Estelle Frommherz, Nora Isenmann, Lisa Niedermeier, Benedikt Csernalabics, Tobias Boettler, Christoph Neumann-Haefelin, Dominique Endres, Marcus Panning and Benjamin Berger

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:304

    Content type: Research

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  19. Swallowing dysfunction is related to major cause of adverse events and an indicator of shorter survival among patients with neuromuscular disorders (NMD). It is critical to assess the swallowing function durin...

    Authors: George Umemoto, Shinsuke Fujioka, Hajime Arahata, Nobutaka Sakae, Naokazu Sasagasako, Mine Toda, Hirokazu Furuya and Yoshio Tsuboi

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:302

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Executive functioning (EF) deficits are troubling for adolescents and young adults (AYAs) after cancer treatment. Physical activity (PA) may enhance neural activity underlying EF among older adults affected by...

    Authors: Amanda Wurz, Gladys Ayson, Andra M. Smith and Jennifer Brunet

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:300

    Content type: Research

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  21. The precise etiology of anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) infarction is difficult to identify because of the high anatomic variability of vertebrobasilar arteries and the limitations of conventional v...

    Authors: Zhi-yong Zhang, Zhi Zhou, Hai-bo Zhang and Jin-song Jiao

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:299

    Content type: Case report

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  22. Mobility capacity is a key outcome domain in neurorehabilitation. The de Morton Mobility Index (DEMMI), an established and generic outcome assessment of mobility capacity in older patients, is promising for us...

    Authors: Tobias Braun, Detlef Marks, Christian Thiel and Christian Grüneberg

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:298

    Content type: Research

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  23. Motor imagery (MI) has been successfully applied in neurological rehabilitation. Little is known about the spontaneous selection of the MI perspectives in patients with sensorimotor impairments. What perspecti...

    Authors: Szabina Gäumann, Rahel Sarah Gerber, Zorica Suica, Jasmin Wandel and Corina Schuster-Amft

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:297

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Neurolymphomatosis (NL) is a rare manifestation of malignant lymphoma that shows selective infiltration to the peripheral nervous system primarily or secondarily. We report a patient with secondary NL caused b...

    Authors: Mai Hamaguchi, Norito Kokubun, Hadzki Matsuda, Hiroki Onuma, Reika Aoki, Wataru Takahashi, Kinuko Mitani and Keisuke Suzuki

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:296

    Content type: Case report

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  25. Relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS) phenotypes differ widely although the variables contributing to this heterogeneity remain uncertain. To assess geographic and ethnic effects on RR-MS phenotypes, ...

    Authors: M. Alluqmani, W. Roda, M. Qqrmli, G. Blevins, F. Giuliani and C. Power

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:295

    Content type: Research

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  26. To compare the effectiveness of various drug interventions in improving the clinical outcome of postoperative patients after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) and assist in determining the drugs of def...

    Authors: Wanli Yu, Yizhou Huang, Xiaolin Zhang, Huirong Luo, Weifu Chen, Yongxiang Jiang and Yuan Cheng

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:294

    Content type: Research

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  27. Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1C (CMT1C) is a rare form of dominantly inherited CMT1 neuropathy caused by a mutated gene encoding lipopolysaccharide-induced tumour necrosis alpha factor (LITAF).

    Authors: Monika Turčanová Koprušáková, Milan Grofik, Ema Kantorová, Petra Jungová, Ján Chandoga, Martin Kolisek, Peter Valkovič, Matej Škorvánek, Rafal Ploski, Egon Kurča and Štefan Sivák

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:293

    Content type: Case report

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  28. The use of new concepts in patient care, such as video-consultations, reminder systems, and online evaluation portals, is becoming increasingly important in the physician–patient relationship and outpatient ca...

    Authors: Till Hamann, Stella Lemke, Peter Kropp, Florian Rimmele, Tim P. Jürgens and Fabian Frielitz

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:291

    Content type: Research

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  29. Medically-refractory trigeminal neuralgia (TN) can be treated successfully with operative intervention, but a significant proportion of patients are non-responders despite undergoing technically successful sur...

    Authors: Hayden Danyluk, Jennifer Andrews, Rohit Kesarwani, Peter Seres, Robert Broad, B. Matt Wheatley and Tejas Sankar

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:290

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Visual rating of medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) is often performed in conjunction with dementia workup. Most prior studies involved patients with known or probable Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This study inve...

    Authors: Anna Molinder, Doerthe Ziegelitz, Stephan E. Maier and Carl Eckerström

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:289

    Content type: Research

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  31. Transsphenoidal surgery is the gold standard for pituitary adenoma resection. Although rare, a serious complication of surgery is worsened vision post-operatively.

    Authors: Farizeh Jashek-Ahmed, Ivan Cabrilo, Jarnail Bal, Brett Sanders, Joan Grieve, Neil L. Dorward and Hani J. Marcus

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:287

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Culminating evidence shows that current care does not optimally meet the needs of persons with parkinsonism, their carers and healthcare professionals. Recently, a new model of care was developed to address th...

    Authors: Jan H. L. Ypinga, Angelika D. Van Halteren, Emily J. Henderson, Bastiaan R. Bloem, Agnes J. Smink, Emma Tenison, Marten Munneke, Yoav Ben-Shlomo and Sirwan K. L. Darweesh

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:286

    Content type: Study protocol

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  33. Brain biopsies are crucial diagnostic interventions, providing valuable information for treatment and prognosis, but largely depend on a high accuracy and precision. We hypothesized that through the combinatio...

    Authors: Oliver Bichsel, Markus F. Oertel and Lennart H. Stieglitz

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:285

    Content type: Research article

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  34. The purpose of this study was to describe the effects of COVID-19 social distancing on the function, health, and well-being of people with Parkinson disease (PD), and test the association of these effects with...

    Authors: Galit Yogev-Seligmann and Michal Kafri

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:284

    Content type: Research

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  35. Most spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhages (SAH) occur unexpectedly and independently of classical risk factors. In the light of increasing climate variability and change, we investigated weather and rapid weat...

    Authors: Michael Kockler, Peter Schlattmann, Mario Walther, Georg Hagemann, Philipp Nils Becker, Steffen Rosahl, Otto W. Witte, Matthias Schwab and Florian Rakers

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:283

    Content type: Research

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  36. Glioblastoma (GBM) is a refractory disease with a poor prognosis and various methods, including maximum resection and immunotherapy, have been tested to improve outcomes. In this retrospective study we analyze...

    Authors: Eiichi Ishikawa, Narushi Sugii, Masahide Matsuda, Hidehiro Kohzuki, Takao Tsurubuchi, Hiroyoshi Akutsu, Shingo Takano, Masashi Mizumoto, Hideyuki Sakurai and Akira Matsumura

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:282

    Content type: Research

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  37. Previously published computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies regarding intracranial aneurysm (IA) formation present conflicting results. Our study analysed the involvement of the combination of high wall sh...

    Authors: Mikołaj Zimny, Edyta Kawlewska, Anna Hebda, Wojciech Wolański, Piotr Ładziński and Wojciech Kaspera

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:281

    Content type: Research

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  38. Motor impairment after stroke is due not only to direct tissue loss but also to disrupted connectivity within the motor network. Mixed results from studies attempting to enhance motor recovery with Transcrania...

    Authors: Camarin E. Rolle, Fiona M. Baumer, Joshua T. Jordan, Ketura Berry, Madelleine Garcia, Karen Monusko, Hersh Trivedi, Wei Wu, Russell Toll, Marion S. Buckwalter, Maarten Lansberg and Amit Etkin

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:280

    Content type: Research

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  39. We aim to describe and compare patients and general practitioners’ opinions about the different variables related to acute and preventive treatment for migraine.

    Authors: Javier Trigo-López, Ángel Luis Guerrero-Peral, Álvaro Sierra, Enrique Martínez-Pías, María Gutiérrez-Sánchez, Elizabeth Huzzey and David García-Azorín

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:279

    Content type: Research

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  40. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is defined by an increased cerebrospinal fluid pressure in the absence of inflammation, structural obstructions, or mass lesions. Although the underlying pathogenesis...

    Authors: Felix Fischbach, Anne Deborah Scholz-Hehn, Christian Gerloff and Monika Pötter-Nerger

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:278

    Content type: Case report

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  41. Myasthenia gravis (MG) can occur as a paraneoplastic phenomenon associated with thymoma. The association of MG with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is not clear. Herein, we describe six cases of MG associated with ...

    Authors: Yiming Zheng, Jingjing Luo, Haiqiang Jin, Ran Liu, Hongjun Hao and Feng Gao

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:277

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Spasticity is present in more than 80% of the population with cerebral palsy (CP). The aim of this study was to describe and compare the use of three spasticity reducing methods; Botulinum toxin-A therapy (BTX...

    Authors: Gunnar Hägglund, Sandra Julsen Hollung, Matti Ahonen, Guro L. Andersen, Guðbjörg Eggertsdóttir, Mark S. Gaston, Reidun Jahnsen, Ira Jeglinsky-Kankainen, Kirsten Nordbye-Nielsen, Ilaria Tresoldi and Ann I. Alriksson-Schmidt

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:276

    Content type: Research

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  43. Guillain–Barre syndrome (GBS) is an inflammatory polyradiculoneuropathy characterized by rapidly evolving weakness and areflexia, reaching nadir within 4 weeks. Data on the characteristic of GBS in Saudi Arabi...

    Authors: Mohammed H. Alanazy, Sawsan S. Bakry, Afnan Alqahtani, Norah S. AlAkeel, Naael Alazwary, Afag M. Osman, Rania A. Mustafa, Talal M. Al-Harbi, Sameeh O. Abdulmana, Aimee C. Amper, Yousef Aldughaythir, Abdulrahman S. Ali, Seraj Makkawi, Alaa Maglan, Loujen Alamoudi, Feras Alsulaiman…

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:275

    Content type: Research

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