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  1. Ischemic stroke, including transient ischemic attack (TIA) and acute-phase cerebral infarction (aCI), is a serious health problem in the aging society. Thus, this study aimed to identify TIA and aCI biomarkers.

    Authors: Hao Wang, Hao Lu, Xiao-Meng Zhang, Ken-ichiro Goto, Eiichi Kobayashi, Yoichi Yoshida, Akihiko Adachi, Tomoo Matsutani, Yasuo Iwadate, Seiichiro Mine, Toshio Machida, Mizuki Sata, Kazumasa Yamagishi, Hiroyasu Iso, Norie Sawada, Shoichiro Tsugane…

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:274

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease (NIID) is a rare neurodegenerative disease. Pathologically, it is characterized by eosinophilic hyaline intranuclear inclusions in the cells of the visceral organs as we...

    Authors: Atsuhiko Sugiyama, Takahiro Takeda, Mizuho Koide, Hajime Yokota, Hiroki Mukai, Yoshihisa Kitayama, Kazumoto Shibuya, Nobuyuki Araki, Ai Ishikawa, Sagiri Isose, Kimiko Ito, Kazuhiro Honda, Yoshitaka Yamanaka, Terunori Sano, Yuko Saito, Kimihito Arai…

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:273

    Content type: Case report

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  3. Human hairy (not glabrous skin) is equipped with a subgroup of C-fibers, the C-tactile (CT) fibers. Those do not mediate pain but affective aspects of touch. CT-fiber-activation reduces experimental pain if th...

    Authors: Kathrin Habig, Gothje Lautenschläger, Hagen Maxeiner, Frank Birklein, Heidrun H. Krämer and Susann Seddigh

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:272

    Content type: Research

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  4. Dementia is one of the greatest global health and social care challenges of the twenty-first century. The etiology and pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) as the most common type of dementia remain unknow...

    Authors: Lingling Wang, Ping Li, Ming Hou, Xiumin Zhang, Xiaolin Cao and Hongyan Li

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:271

    Content type: Research article

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  5. In neurosurgery, it is important to use local hemostatic agents. We have explored a more powerful method of hemostasis by the combination of commercially available hemostatic agents with fibrin glue in the hop...

    Authors: Katsumi Takizawa, Daiki Okazaki, Yoshitaka Takegawa, Yuki Koga, Masataka Sagata, Kenichi Michishita and Noriko Shinya

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:270

    Content type: Research article

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  6. This article comprises a systematic review of the literature that aims at researching and analyzing the frequently applied guidelines for structuring national databases of epidemiological surveillance for moto...

    Authors: Ingridy Barbalho, Ricardo Valentim, Mário Dourado Júnior, Daniele Barros, Hércules Pedrosa Júnior, Felipe Fernandes, César Teixeira, Thaísa Lima, Jailton Paiva and Danilo Nagem

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:269

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Minimally invasive surgery has achieved good results in the treatment of cerebral haemorrhage.However, no large-scale clinical study has demonstrated that surgical treatment of cerebral haemorrhages less than ...

    Authors: Xin Huang, Lai Jiang, Shaojun Chen, Gang Li, Wanxi Pan, Lei Peng and Ziwei Yan

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:268

    Content type: Research

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  8. Hemiplegic migraine (HM) is an uncommon subtype of migraine with aura including motor weakness. The core symptoms of HM are headache and motor weakness. However, we report a rare case of atypical HM with nonhe...

    Authors: Hui Chen, Xiaolan Sun, Ruiyan Wang, Zhaoshi Yi, Zhixin Huang, Jihua Xie, Xiongying Yu, Yong Chen and Jianmin Zhong

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:267

    Content type: Case report

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  9. Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a clinical syndrome characterized by a temporary short-term memory loss with inability to retain new memories, usually lasting 2 to 8 h. TGA may be related to several medical ...

    Authors: Sabrina Ravaglia, Antonio Zito, Lara Ahmad and Isabella Canavero

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:266

    Content type: Case report

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  10. Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) is a late-onset muscular dystrophy characterised by slowly progressive ptosis, dysphagia, and proximal limb muscle weakness. A common cause of OPMD is the short expans...

    Authors: Yo-suke Nishii, Yu-ichi Noto, Rei Yasuda, Takamasa Kitaoji, Shinji Ashida, Eijirou Tanaka, Narihiro Minami, Ichizo Nishino and Toshiki Mizuno

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:265

    Content type: Case report

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  11. The term “Tolosa-Hunt syndrome” (THS) has been used to refer to painful ophthalmoplegia associated with nonspecific inflammation of the cavernous sinus and many processes can result in a similar clinical pictu...

    Authors: Paulo Ribeiro Nóbrega, Pedro Gustavo Barros Rodrigues, Isabelle de Sousa Pereira, Carolina de Figueiredo Santos, Gunter Gerson, José Arnaldo Motta de Arruda, José Wagner Leonel Tavares Júnior, Pablo Picasso de Araújo Coimbra and Pedro Braga-Neto

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:264

    Content type: Case report

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  12. Over the past 20 years Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) has grown in clinical use to support walking in people with lower limb weakness or paralysis due to upper motor neuron lesions. Despite growing co...

    Authors: C Bulley, C Meagher, T Street, A Adonis, C Peace, C Singleton and J. Burridge

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:263

    Content type: Research

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  13. Fatigue and sleep disturbance are debilitating problems following brain injury and there are no established treatments. Building on demonstrated efficacy of blue light delivered via a lightbox in reducing fati...

    Authors: Laura J. Connolly, Shantha M. W. Rajaratnam, Jade M. Murray, Gershon Spitz, Steven W. Lockley and Jennie L. Ponsford

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:262

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Among the many factors that may influence traumatic brain injury (TBI) progression, sex is one of the most controversial. The objective of this study was to investigate sex differences in TBI-associated morbid...

    Authors: Sanae Hosomi, Tetsuhisa Kitamura, Tomotaka Sobue, Hiroshi Ogura and Takeshi Shimazu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:261

    Content type: Research

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  15. The optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) and ONSD/eyeball transverse diameter (ETD) ratio have been proven to be correlated with intracranial pressure. This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic roles of ONSD a...

    Authors: Sha Zhu, Chao Cheng, Dianjiang Zhao, Yuanli Zhao, Xianzeng Liu and Jun Zhang

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:259

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Stroke is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. Also, free radicals and oxidative stress are deleterious factor in the stroke progression. We aimed to evaluate the association between oxidative stress mark...

    Authors: Sheida Shaafi, Fina Hadisi, Mahsa Mahmoudinezhad, Hamidreza Razmi, Seyed Aria Nejadghaderi and Mohammad Khalili

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:258

    Content type: Research

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  17. Erenumab, a monoclonal antibody against the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor, is registered for migraine prevention. Compared to other conventional migraine prevention medicines (i.e. topiramate...

    Authors: C. K. Cullum, M. K. Olsen, H. B. Kocadag, M. Ashina and F. M. Amin

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:257

    Content type: Case report

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  18. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease with no cure and few treatment options. Its incidence is increasing due to aging populations, longer disease duration and potentially as a CO...

    Authors: Ann Liebert, Brian Bicknell, E-Liisa Laakso, Gillian Heller, Parastoo Jalilitabaei, Sharon Tilley, John Mitrofanis and Hosen Kiat

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:256

    Content type: Research

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  19. Extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) has been suggested to cause neuroinflammation and motor neuron degeneration by activating microglia and astrocytes in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Since we...

    Authors: Takamasa Nukui, Atsushi Matsui, Hideki Niimi, Tomoyuki Sugimoto, Tomohiro Hayashi, Nobuhiro Dougu, Hirofumi Konishi, Mamoru Yamamoto, Ryoko Anada, Noriyuki Matsuda, Isao Kitajima and Yuji Nakatsuji

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:255

    Content type: Research

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  20. Effective inclusion in society for young people with disabilities is increasingly seen as generating opportunities for self-development, and improving well-being. However, significant barriers remain in the va...

    Authors: Catherine Arnaud, Carine Duffaut, Jérôme Fauconnier, Silke Schmidt, Kate Himmelmann, Marco Marcelli, Lindsay Pennington, Joaquim Alvarelhão, Chirine Cytera, Marion Rapp, Virginie Ehlinger and Ute Thyen

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:254

    Content type: Study protocol

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  21. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension and post-dural puncture headache are both caused by a loss of cerebrospinal fluid but present with different pathogeneses. We compared these two conditions concerning their...

    Authors: Gha-Hyun Lee, Jiyoung Kim, Hyun-Woo Kim and Jae Wook Cho

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:253

    Content type: Research

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  22. Epilepsy is a severe chronic neurologic disease with a prevalence of 0.7% worldwide; anti-seizure medications (ASMs) are the mainstay of epilepsy treatment. The effects of sociodemographic factors on the chara...

    Authors: Qiong Zhu, Yi Guo, Shuai Ma, Lili Yang, Zhonghua Lin, Hongbin Sun, Guangzong Li and Liang Yu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:251

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Authors: Roderick P. P. W. M. Maas, Ivan Toni, Jonne Doorduin, Thomas Klockgether, Dennis J. L. G. Schutter and Bart P. C. van de Warrenburg

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:250

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in BMC Neurology 2019 19:149

  24. Non-pharmacological approaches for the management of migraine exhibit low to moderate effectiveness due to a lack of high-quality randomized clinical trials. In fact, previous studies applied isolated techniqu...

    Authors: Gabriella de Almeida Tolentino, Lidiane Lima Florencio, Carina Ferreira Pinheiro, Fabíola Dach, César Fernández-de-las-Peñas and Débora Bevilaqua-Grossi

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:249

    Content type: Study protocol

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  25. Inherited prion diseases are rare autosomal dominant disorders associated with diverse clinical presentations. All are associated with mutation of the gene that encodes prion protein (PRNP). Homozygous mutations ...

    Authors: Ahamad Hassan, Tracy Campbell, Lee Darwent, Hans Odd, Alison Green, John Collinge and Simon Mead

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:248

    Content type: Case report

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  26. Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) is necessary for stent assisted coiling. However, long term use of DAPT has a potential risk of hemorrhagic events. We aimed to examine the relationship between clopidogrel rea...

    Authors: Kenji Shoda, Yukiko Enomoto, Yusuke Egashira, Takamasa Kinoshita, Daisuke Mizutani and Toru Iwama

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:247

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Cranial nerve involvement is not commonly encountered in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP); this is especially true for involvement of the hypoglossal nerve. Neither Beevor's sig...

    Authors: Huajian Zhao, Yiming Zheng, Lingchao Meng, Meng Yu, Wei Zhang, He Lv, Zhaoxia Wang, Hongjun Hao and Yun Yuan

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:244

    Content type: Case report

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  28. Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy, also referred to as Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease (CMT), is most often caused by a duplication of the peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) gene. This duplication causes CMT ...

    Authors: Nozomu Matsuda, Koushi Ootsuki, Shunsuke Kobayashi, Ayaka Nemoto, Hitoshi Kubo, Shin-ichi Usami and Kazuaki Kanani

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:243

    Content type: Case report

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  29. Levodopa–carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG) treatment, a unique drug delivery system for patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD), is covered by health insurance in Japan since September 2016. Various LCIG...

    Authors: Kanefumi Yamashita, Yukinori Yube, Yukinao Yamazaki, Takehide Fukuchi, Masaki Kato, Tomoyuki Koike, Takeshi Uehara, Yoshiou Ikeda, Satoshi Furune, Hidehiro Murakami, Eiji Kubota, Shinsuke Fujioka, Yoshinori Sato, Xiaoyi Jin, Tomohiko Suzuki, Kazuhiro Furukawa…

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:242

    Content type: Research

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  30. Sarcopenia is the age-related loss of muscle mass and strength. Undiagnosed late-onset neuromuscular disorders need to be considered in the differential diagnosis of sarcopenia.

    Authors: Fabian Hofmeister, Lisa Baber, Uta Ferrari, Stefan Hintze, Stefanie Jarmusch, Sabine Krause, Peter Meinke, Stefan Mehaffey, Carl Neuerburg, Fabiana Tangenelli, Benedikt Schoser and Michael Drey

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:241

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Antipsychotics are used in Parkinson disease (PD) to treat psychosis, mood, and behavioral disturbances. Commonly used antipsychotics differ substantially in their potential to worsen motor symptoms through do...

    Authors: Thanh Phuong Pham Nguyen, Danielle S. Abraham, Dylan Thibault, Daniel Weintraub and Allison W. Willis

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:240

    Content type: Research

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  32. This study aimed to investigate the frequency and risk factors for cerebral artery stenosis and occlusion in patients with polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M-protein, and skin changes (POEMS) synd...

    Authors: Atsuhiko Sugiyama, Hajime Yokota, Sonoko Misawa, Hiroki Mukai, Yukari Sekiguchi, Kyosuke Koide, Tomoki Suichi, Jun Matsushima, Takashi Kishimoto, Zen-ichi Tanei, Yuko Saito, Shoichi Ito and Satoshi Kuwabara

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:239

    Content type: Research

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  33. The purpose of our study was to analyse endovascular treatment (EVT) in patients presenting acute anterior circulation ischemic stroke with large-vessel occlusion (AIS-LVO) during the pandemic and post-epidemi...

    Authors: Tangqin Zhang, Chu Chen, Xiangjun Xu, Junfeng Xu, Ke Yang, Youqing Xu, Lili Yuan, Qian Yang, Xianjun Huang and Zhiming Zhou

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:238

    Content type: Research

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  34. Studies have suggested that glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonists such as tirofiban are beneficial for patients with acute coronary syndromes. However, it is still uncertain about the efficacy and safety of tirofi...

    Authors: Chunrong Tao, Yuyou Zhu, Chao Zhang, Jianlong Song, Tianlong Liu, Xiaodong Yuan, Wenwu Luo, Changchun Chen, Dezhi Liu, Yuanyuan Zhu, Jie Liu and Wei Hu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:237

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common helminthic infection of the central nervous system (CNS) caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium. Accurate and early diagnosis of NCC remains challenging due to its...

    Authors: Bin Chen, Zheng Chen, Yi-shu Yang, Gui-lan Cai, Xiao-jiao Xu, Hong-zhi Guan, Hai-tao Ren and Hou-zhen Tuo

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:236

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  36. The prevalence of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) has been increasing worldwide and the highest prevalence ratio among Asian countries was reported in Iran. This study aims to estimate the increase in MS occurrence du...

    Authors: Payam Amini, Amir Almasi-Hashiani, Mohammad Ali Sahraian, Masood Najafi and Sharareh Eskandarieh

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:235

    Content type: Research

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  37. Patients who develop hospital-onset unresponsiveness should be promptly managed in order to avoid clinical deterioration. Pupillary examination through pupillary light reflex is the gold standard method in the...

    Authors: Hyunjo Lee, Soh Hyun Choi, Bobin Park, Yoon-Hee Hong, Han-Bin Lee and Sang-Beom Jeon

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:234

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is common in elderly patients and can be alleviated by pulsed radiofrequency (PRF). However, PRF treatments display different efficacy on different nerves. The purpose of this stud...

    Authors: Xuehua Huang, Yanfeng Ma, Weimin Wang, Yunxiu Guo, Bo Xu and Ke Ma

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:233

    Content type: Research

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  39. Gliosarcoma (GS) refers to the presence of mesenchymal differentiation (as seen using light microscopy) in the setting of glioblastoma (GB, an astrocytoma, WHO Grade 4). Although the same approach to treatment...

    Authors: Christopher Dardis, David Donner, Nader Sanai, Joanne Xiu, Sandeep Mittal, Sharon K. Michelhaugh, Manjari Pandey, Santosh Kesari, Amy B. Heimberger, Zoran Gatalica, Michael W. Korn, Ashley L. Sumrall and Surasak Phuphanich

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:231

    Content type: Research

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    The Publisher Correction to this article has been published in BMC Neurology 2021 21:316

  40. Dynamic axial computed tomographic angiography (dynax–CTA), covering a thin width, with a focus on the bilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA), can quickly visualize the internal carotid artery (ICA) or MCA occ...

    Authors: Takahisa Mori, Kazuhiro Yoshioka, Wataru Mori and Yuhei Tanno

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:230

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Ischemic events are the most common postoperative complication in bypass surgery for moyamoya disease (MMD), but the risk factors for pediatric MMD remain unclear. The goal of the study was to investigate the ...

    Authors: Xiaofeng Deng, Peicong Ge, Rong Wang, Dong Zhang, Jizong Zhao and Yan Zhang

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:229

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  42. This retrospective study evaluates patient-reported outcomes in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) spasticity who were treated with a cannabinoid oromucosal spray (Sativex®, USAN name: nabiximols) after not...

    Authors: Marie D’hooghe, Barbara Willekens, Valerie Delvaux, Miguel D’haeseleer, Daniel Guillaume, Guy Laureys, Guy Nagels, Patrick Vanderdonckt, Vincent Van Pesch and Veronica Popescu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:227

    Content type: Research

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  43. We aim to compare the effect of long-term anti-seizure medication (ASM) monotherapy on the risk of death and new ischemic stroke in patients with post-stroke epilepsy (PSE).

    Authors: Chia-Yu Hsu, Chun-Yu Cheng, Jiann-Der Lee, Meng Lee and Bruce Ovbiagele

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:226

    Content type: Research

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