Guillain-Barré Syndrome: Natural history and prognostic factors: a retrospective review of 106 cases
- Inés González-Suárez†1Email author,
- Irene Sanz-Gallego†1,
- Francisco Javier Rodríguez de Rivera†1 and
- Javier Arpa†1
© González-Suárez et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2013
Received: 20 March 2012
Accepted: 11 July 2013
Published: 22 July 2013
Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is characterized by acute onset and progressive course, and is usually associated with a good prognosis. However, there are forms of poor prognosis, needing ventilatory support and major deficits at discharge. With this study we try to identify the factors associated with a worse outcome.
106 cases of GBS admitted in our hospital between years 2000–2010 were reviewed. Epidemiological, clinical, therapeutical and evolutionary data were collected.
At admission 45% had severe deficits, percentage which improves throughout the evolution of the illness, with full recovery or minor deficits in the 87% of patients at the first year review. Ages greater than 55 years, severity at admission (p < 0.001), injured cranial nerves (p = 0.008) and the needing of ventilator support (p = 0.003) were associated with greater sequels at the discharge and at the posterior reviews in the following months. 17% required mechanical ventilation (MV). Values < 250 L/min in the Peak Flow-test are associated with an increased likelihood of requiring MV (p < 0.001).
Older age, severe deficits at onset, injured cranial nerves, requiring MV, and axonal lesion patterns in the NCS were demonstrated as poor prognostic factors. Peak Flow-test is a useful predictive factor of respiratory failure by its easy management.
KeywordsGuillain-Barre Natural history Prognostic factors Peak flow
The term Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) includes a set of clinical syndromes (GBS) with a common pathophysiological basis; an acute inflammatory polyneuropathy with an autoimmune etiology [1–3]. Although usually characterized by a progressive flaccid paralysis with areflexia a wide range of motor, sensory and autonomic symptoms could be seen [1–4]. In general, the diagnosis is based on clinical criteria [4–7]; nevertheless, the presence of suggestive findings in the complementary test as demyelinising changes in the nerve conduction studies (NCS) or albuminocytological dissociation in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), help to confirm the diagnosis .
The worldwide incidence of GBS is reported to be 0.6-2.4 cases per 100,000 per year [8–15]. The classic form, the acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (AIDP), is the most frequent subtype in Europe, which accounts for 90% of GBS cases . Other subtypes like the axonal forms or the Miller-Fisher syndrome (MFS) [16, 17] are less common.
The prognosis is usually good, showing a complete functional recovery or with minimal deficits in the 90% of patients 1 year after the onset of illness [13, 18]. Several factors have been identified as predictors of poor outcome [13, 14, 19–21]. Death rate is described to be between 1-18% [14, 15]. This study aimed to describe the epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and electrodiagnostic features, as well as to identify the predictive factors of worse prognosis in the GBS or its subtypes.
A retrospective review of the medical records of patients admitted at La Paz University Hospital (Madrid, Spain) with the diagnosis of GBS between 2000–2010 was made. 106 fulfilled levels 1, 2 or 3 of diagnostic certainty for GBS/MFS described by Sejvar et al. . All demographic, clinical, laboratory and electrophysiological data were recorded, as well as outcome and treatment.
Severity at admission was assessed by the Medical Research Council (MRC) sum score, valuing the strength from 0 to 5 in 4 muscles (proximal and distal) in both upper and lower limbs on both sides, so that the score ranged from 40 (normal) to 0 (quadriplegic) and by the GBS disability score advocated by Hughes et al. . Cranial nerve involvement was considered separately by the affectation of oculomotor, facial and bulbar nerves. Respiratory weakness was assessed first by the value obtained at the peak expiratory flow meter (Peak Flow), as well as the need for mechanical ventilation throughout the evolution. Sensory disturbances, autonomic alteration or pain presence were also assessed.
Serological screening for preceding infections was recorded, including Herpes Simplex virus (HSV), Varicella-Zoster (VZV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Mycoplasma Pneumoniae, B and C hepatitis virus, Haemophilus Influenzae and, in selected cases, stool and Campylobacter Jejuni determination. The CSF was analyzed for cell count, glucose and protein concentration.
Neurophysiological studies were evaluated in accordance with the criteria of Hadden et al. [23, 24]. As in a retrospective study, not in all cases were the same nerves measured. Also, electromyography studies (EMG) with concentric needle electrodes were made to evaluate the axonal loss (fibrillation, positive sharp wave…).
The evaluation of the functional impact was graded by the GBS disability score  during the discharge from the neurology or the rehabilitation department, and at the third, sixth and twelfth month in the outpatient clinic.
The study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of La Paz Hospital, Madrid, Spain.
All statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS 12 for Windows program (Chicago, IL, E.U.A.). For univariate analysis, Chi-square test for dichotomic variables was used. For continuous variables, t-Student test in parametric variables or U Mann-Withney with the non-parametric ones were used.
Epidemiological data of GBS patients
Number of cases
Upper respiratory infection
Mild (MRC 31–40)
Moderate (MRC 11–30)
Severe (MRC 0–10)
Cranial nerve involvement
Facial palsy uni/bilateral
GBS disability score
Minor signs or symptoms
Walk without support
Walk with support
Bedridden or chair bound
Death attributed to SGB
A motor disorder at the admission was referred in 94 patients, with a variable degree. By classifying them according to the GBS disability score, 55% retained the ability to walk (grades 1, 2 and 3), unlike the remaining 45% which showed a severe affectation (grades 4, 5 and 6); Respiratory distress was present in 17% of patients. Pulmonary function was valued by the Peak Flow test in 50 patients, showed that values below 250 L/min were associated with a greater likelihood of requiring MV during the income (p < 0.05), independently of the presence of uni/bilateral facial palsy (p < 0.05). Time between symptom onset and admission was significantly lower in the severe cases (mean 5.17 days) compared with the mild ones (mean 8.87 days), so a faster progression could be postulated in the first ones (p = 0.053). Non-motor symptoms were described; the most frequent, neuropathic pain in 31% of patients, followed by sensory disturbances in 29%. Autonomic dysfunctions were found in 8.5% of cases. In 7% of the patients a syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone hypersecretion (SIADH) was diagnosed .
Laboratory and neurophysiological findings
A lumbar puncture was made in 95 patients (90%) with an average delay of 15 ± 11.71 days (range 1–80) since the beginning of symptoms. Raised concentration of proteins was present in 80 patients (85%) with albuminocytological dissociation in 79 of them (85%).
Serologic studies were made in 101 patients (95%), in 8 (8%) cases CMV was the microorganism responsible for the GBS; in 5 (5%) Mycoplasma Pneumoniae, in 1(1%) EBV and 1 (1%) enterovirus; the remaining 85.1% of serology was negative.
Neurophysiological data of patients with GBS
6,8 ± 5,6
6,4 ± 7,8
43,6 ± 17,9
7,03 ± 7,8
3,2 ± 3,4
43,6 ± 16,6
0,1 ± 61,0
0,10 ± 65,5
8,0 ± 7,8
3,4 ± 1,5
46,6 ± 17,4
3,9 ± 3,9
2,6 ± 1,9
43,2 ± 16,4
4,8 ± 5,9
6,7 ± 2,2
33,5 ± 15,6
3,6 ± 3,9
6,9 ± 5,1
35,9 ± 14,8
6,01 ± 5,4
2,6 ± 1,9
39,2 ± 15,5
9,7 ± 8,2
2,2 ± 0,7
39,8 ± 12,7
The distribution of the different subtypes of GBS was: AIDP in 83%, acute motor and sensory axonal neuropathy (AMSAN) in 5.7%, acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) in 1.9%, MFS in 8.5% and cranial multineuritis in 0.9%.
Treatment, outcome and prognosis
Some kind of treatment was offered to 89 patients (84%): 88 received IVIg (83%) and 3 plasma exchange (2.8%); in 2 patients both treatments were dispensed sequentially. 16% of cases never started a treatment due to the mild symptoms or the long evolution of the disease.
Proportion of patients, based on the GBS score, during the follow-up
3th month revision
6th month revision
12th month revision
Minor deficits or symptoms
Walk without support
Walk with support
Bedbridden or chairbound
Possible predictor factors of a poor outcome
3th month revision deficits
6th month revision deficits
12th month revision deficits
Severity at admission
Axonal lesion at CNS
The present work has the limitations of a retrospective study based on hospital case-mix. The incidence is reported to be 0.6-2.4 cases per 100,000 per year [18, 19, 21]. Changes suffered in the last years in the attendance area of the hospital make incidence calculation complex and inaccurate; however, it appears to be of 1.68-2.46 per 100,000 per year.
There is no difference between gender [1, 2]. The bimodal shape wasn’t present in our study [8–10], as there is a linear increase in the incidence with age [1, 2, 9, 11, 12, 24]. GBS is considered a sporadic illness, without a seasonal cluster [1, 9]; however, a trend to accrue in winter is shown in our series [11, 12]. The infectious event is described to appear in 40-70% of patients [1–3, 8–12]. In our series up to 70% of cases have had one, of which respiratory infection was the most frequent.
As in previous series, weakness and hypo/areflexia were the most frequent symptoms, followed by neuropathic pain and numbness. Hyponatremia, as a symptom of SIADH is not a classical manifestation of GBS; however, there are series in which are described to be present in up to 58% of the cases; in our review, it was found in 7% of our patients.
There isn’t a consensus about the neurophysiological values defining GBS and its variants [2, 4, 5, 7, 23, 24, 26–29]. It is accepted as demyelination parameters: motor conduction velocity (MCV) decrease, prolongation of motor distal latency, conduction blocks, temporal dispersion and increased F-wave latency . It is reported that the first electromyographic changes are the alteration of F-wave and H-reflex response [2, 22], altered both in our NCS reported as normal, probably due to the earliness of the exploration. In MFS, the CNS are normal in most cases; nonetheless, discrete changes in the sensory conduction or in H-reflex may be present [30–32], some authors postulate a damage in the afferent proprioceptive system as a pathophysiological basis .
As classically described, in our study illness prognosis is favourable; 81% of patients presented absent or minimum neurological deficits one year after the onset. Older age, illness severity in the acute phase, prior gastrointestinal infection and axonal injury in the CNS and mechanical ventilation requirement [15, 20, 33, 34] are among the factors that have been advocated for poor prognosis. Van Koningsveld et al. defined a clinical prognostic scoring system for GBS outcome at 6 months, the “Erasmus GBS Outcome Score” or EGOS , it was based on the punctuation on the GBS disability score at 2 weeks from the admission, the history of diarrhoea and the age. Recently, Walgaard et al. have validated a modified EGOS (mEGOS) with the main difference being the use of the MRC sum score at admission and in the 7th day instead the GBS disability score , they claimed that the MRC sum score is more accurate, and the possibility of being used at admission could predict the future treatments. However, the mEGOS made on the 7th day after the admission show increased predictive value instead the one made on the first day . However, although useful, the mEGOS passed on the first day of admission showed lower predictive ability than the one performed on the 7th day. In our study we demonstrate that, even in the first day of admission, lower scores on the GBS scale are associated with worse outcome and greater disability at discharge, 3 and 6 months. Respiratory distress is the leading cause of death in the acute phase, 20-30% requiring ventilatory support . Many factors have been proposed as predictors of the future need for respiratory support, like forced vital capacity (FVC) < 60%, bulbar dysfunction, rapid progression of the illness, and difficulty raising the head [19, 20]. Van Doorn et al. propose a regularly monitoring of the respiratory function initially every 2-4 h, and then every 6-12 h . Although FVC is considered to be the gold standard test for detecting impaired ventilation it has some disadvantages, the requirement of portable spirometers in the acute phase due to the instability of the patient, the need for a minimum of preparation and knowledge of the technique by medical personnel and the higher cost. Suárez et al. describe a serie of 79 patients with neuromuscular diseases in which the Peak Flow test proved to be useful in the monitoring of expiratory muscle weakness . In our hospital, patients were monitored by the Peak Flow test each 6 hours in the acute phase, being observed that values below 250 L/min predict the posterior need of respiratory support (p < 0.05), independently of the presence of facial palsy that could hinder the use of the test (p < 0.05), making the Peak Flow a safe, inexpensive, and widely-available test in the monitoring of patients with GBS.
Our series is in concordance with those previously published. The seasonal cluster in winter is worth noting on which there is a great controversy. Regarding the outcome, our series reported a worse prognosis in patients with older age, severe deficits at the beginning, injured cranial nerves, requiring MV, and axonal lesion patterns in the NCS. Finally, project the Peak Flow-test as a useful predictive factor of respiratory failure by its availability, and easy management.
Acute inflammatory demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy
Acute motor axonal neuropathy
Acute motor and sensory axonal neuropathy
Conduction motor action potential
Medical research council
Nerve conduction studies
Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone hypersecretion
Our thanks are due to Mr. Martin J. Smyth, B.A. for correcting the English.
- Van Doorn PA, Ruts L, Jacobs BC: Clinical features, pathogenesis, and treatment of Guillain-Barré syndrome. Lancet Neurol. 2008, 7: 939-950. 10.1016/S1474-4422(08)70215-1.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Vucic S, Kiernan MC, Cornblath DR: Guillain-Barré syndrome: An update. J Cli Neurosci. 2009, 16: 733-741. 10.1016/j.jocn.2008.08.033.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tellería-Díaz A, Calzada-Sierra DJ: Síndrome de Guillain-Barré. Rev Neurol. 2002, 34 (10): 966-976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Asbury AK, Arnason BGW, Karp HR, McFarlin DF: Criteria for diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome. Ann Neurol. 1978, 3: 565-566.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Asbury AK, Cornblath DR: Assesment of current diagnostic criteria for Guillain-Barré syndrome. Ann Neurol. 1990, 27 (Suppl): S21-S24.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hughes RAC, Rees JH: Clinical and epidemiologic features of Guillain-Barré syndrome. J Infect Dis. 1997, 176 (suppl2): S92-S98.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sejvar JJ, Kohl KS, Gidudu J, Amato A, Bakshi N, Baxter R, et al: Guillain-Barré syndrome and Fisher syndrome: case definitions and guidelines for collection, analysis, and presentation of immunization safety data. Vaccine. 2011, 29: 599-612. 10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.06.003.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- McGrogan A, Madle G, Seaman HE, De Vries CS: The epidemiology of Guillain-Barré syndrome worldwide. Neuroepidemiology. 2009, 32: 150-163. 10.1159/000184748.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- The Emilia-Romagna Study group on Clinical and Epidemiological Problems in Neurology: A prospective study on the incidence and prognosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome in Emilia-Romagna region, Italy (1992–1993). Neurology. 1997, 48: 214-221.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lyu R-K, Tang L-M, Cheng S-Y, Hsa W-C, Chen S-T: Guillain-Barré syndrome in Taiwan: a clinical study of 167 patients. J Neurol Neurosurgery Psychiatry. 1997, 63: 494-500. 10.1136/jnnp.63.4.494.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cuadrado JI, de Pedro Cuesta J, Ara JR, Cemillan CA, Díaz M, Duarte J, et al: Guillain-Barré syndrome in Spain, 1985–1997: epidemiological and public health view. Eur Neurol. 2001, 46: 83-91. 10.1159/000050769.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Alandro-Benito Y, Conde-Sendín MA, Muñoz-Fernández C, Pérez-Correa S, Alemany-Rodríguez MJ, Fiuza-Pérez MD, et al: Síndrome de Guillain-Barré en el área norte de Gran Canaria e isla de Lanzarote. Rev Neurol (Barc.). 2002, 35: 705-710.Google Scholar
- Soysal A, Aysal F, Caliskan B, Dogan Ak P, Mutluay B, Sakalli N, et al: Clinico-electrophysiological findings and prognosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome - 10 years’experience. Acta Neurol Scand. 2011, 123: 181-186. 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2010.01366.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- The Italian Guillain-Barré Study Group: The prognosis and main prognostic indicators of GuillainBarré syndrome. A multicentre prospective study of 297 patients. Brain. 1996, 119: 2053-2061.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Van Koningsveld R, Steyerberg EW, Hughes RAC, Swan AV, Van Doorn PA, Jacobs BC: A clinical prognostic scoring system of Guillain-Barré syndrome. Lancet Neurol. 2007, 6: 589-594. 10.1016/S1474-4422(07)70130-8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chodwury D, Arora A: Axonal Guillain Barré syndrome: a critical review. Acta Neurol Scand. 2001, 103: 267-277.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mori M, Kuwaraba S, Fukutake T, Yuki N, Hattori T: Clinical features and prognosis of Miller Fisher syndrome. Neurology. 2001, 56: 1104-1106. 10.1212/WNL.56.8.1104.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Korinthenberg R, Schessl J, Kirschner J: Clinical presentation and course of childhood Guillain-Barré syndrome: a prospective multicentre study. Neuropediatrics. 2007, 38: 10-17. 10.1055/s-2007-981686.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lawn ND, Fletcher DD, Henderson RD, Wolter TD, Wijdicks EF: Anticipating mechanical ventilation in Guillain-Barré syndrome. Arch Neurol. 2001, 58: 871-872. 10.1001/archneur.58.6.871.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Durand MC, Porcher R, Orlikowski D, Aboab J, Devaux C, Clair B, et al: Clinical and electrophysiological predictors of respiratory failure in Guillain-Barré syndrome: a prospective study. Lancet Neurol. 2006, 5: 1021-1028. 10.1016/S1474-4422(06)70603-2.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Guillain- Barré syndrome. Edited by: Ropper AH, Widjicks EFM, Truax BT. 1991, Philadelphia: F.A. Davis
- Hughes RA, Newsom-Davis JM, Perkin GD, Pierce JM: Controlled trial prednisolone in acute polineuropathy. Lancet. 1978, 2: 750-753.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hadden RDM, Cornblath DR, Hughes RAC, Zielasek J, Hartung HP, Toyka K, et al: Electrophysiological classification of Guillain-Barré Syndrome: clinical associations and outcome. Ann Neurol. 1998, 44: 780-788. 10.1002/ana.410440512.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hughes RAC, Cornblath DR: Guillain-Barré syndrome. Lancet Neurol. 2005, 366: 1653-1666. 10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67665-9.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hadden RD, Karch H, Hartung HP, Zielasek J, Weissbrich B, Schubert J: Preceding infections, immune factors, and outcome in Guillain-Barré syndrome. Neurology. 2001, 56: 758-765. 10.1212/WNL.56.6.758.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Saifudheen K, Jose J, Gafoor VA, Musthafa M: Guillain-Barré síndrome and SIADH. Neurology. 2011, 76: 701-704. 10.1212/WNL.0b013e31820d8b40.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Van den Bergh PYK, Piéret F: Electrodiagnostic criteria for acute and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. Muscle Nerve. 2004, 29: 565-574. 10.1002/mus.20022.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Vucic S, Cairns KD, Black KR, Chong PST, Cros D: Neurophysiologic findings in early acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. Clin Neurophysiology. 2004, 115: 2329-2335. 10.1016/j.clinph.2004.05.009.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Alam TA, Chaudhry V, Cornblath DR, Alam TA, Chaudhry V, Cornblath DR, Electrophysiological studies in the Guillain-Barré syndrome: 30: Electrophysiological studies in the Guillain-Barré syndrome: distinguishing subtypes by published criteria. Muscle Nerve. 1998, 21: 1275-1279. 10.1002/(SICI)1097-4598(199810)21:10<1275::AID-MUS5>3.0.CO;2-8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jamal GA, Leod Mac WN: Electrophysiologic studies in Miller Fisher syndrome. Neurology. 1984, 34: 685-688. 10.1212/WNL.34.5.685.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lo YL: Clinical and immunological spectrum of the Miller Fisher syndrome. Muscle Nerve. 2007, 36: 615-627. 10.1002/mus.20835.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yuki N: Fisher syndrome and Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis (Fisher-Bickerstaff syndrome). J Neuroimmunol. 2009, 215: 1-9. 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2009.05.020.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rajabally YA, Unicini A: Outcome and its predictors in Guillain-barré syndrome. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2012, 83: 711-718. 10.1136/jnnp-2011-301882.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Walgaard C, Lingsma HF, Ruts L, et al: Early recognition of poor prognosis in Guillain-Barré syndrome. Neurology. 2011, 76: 968-975. 10.1212/WNL.0b013e3182104407.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Suarez AA, Pessolano FA, Monteiro SG, Ferreyra G, Capria ME, Mesa L, et al: Peak flow and peak cough flow in the evaluation of expiratory muscle weakness and bulbar impairment in patients with neuromuscular disease. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2002, 81: 506-511. 10.1097/00002060-200207000-00007.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2377/13/95/prepub