Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 3 ORs for Parkinson's disease in relation to alcohol drinking amount per day during "peak" period according to types of alcohol

From: Alcohol drinking and risk of Parkinson's disease: a case-control study in Japan

Alcohol drinking amount per day during "peak" period (ethanol, g) a n (%)   Crude OR (95% CI) Adjusted ORb (95% CI) Adjusted ORc (95% CI)
  Cases (N = 214) Controls (N = 327)    
Beer      
   Non-drinker 127 (59.4) 195 (59.6) 1.00 1.00 1.00
   0.1-65.9 75 (35.1) 121 (37.0) 0.95 (0.66-1.37) 1.14 (0.72-1.79) 0.99 (0.61-1.59)
   ≥ 66.0 12 (5.6) 11 (3.4) 1.68 (0.71-3.97) 2.23 (0.84-5.97) 2.13 (0.80-5.82)
   P for trend    0.62 0.19 0.39
Japanese sake (rice wine)      
   Non-drinker 146 (68.2) 261 (79.8) 1.00 1.00 1.00
   0.1-65.9 58 (27.1) 59 (18.0) 1.76 (1.16-2.66) 2.42 (1.44-4.11) 2.27 (1.34-3.89)
   ≥ 66.0 10 (4.7) 7 (2.1) 2.55 (0.96-7.17) 3.10 (1.04-9.71) 3.39 (1.10-11.0)
   P for trend    0.002 0.001 0.001
Shochu (a distilled alcoholic beverage made in Japan)      
   Non-drinker 180 (84.1) 273 (83.5) 1.00 1.00 1.00
   0.1-65.9 18 (8.4) 32 (9.8) 0.85 (0.46-1.55) 1.07 (0.54-2.08) 1.01 (0.50-1.98)
   ≥ 66.0 16 (7.5) 22 (6.7) 1.10 (0.56-2.15) 1.50 (0.69-3.21) 1.29 (0.59-2.78)
   P for trend    0.98 0.34 0.58
Wine      
   Non-drinker 187 (87.4) 294 (89.9) 1.00 1.00 1.00
   0.1-65.9 24 (11.2) 32 (9.8) 1.18 (0.67-2.06) 1.21 (0.66-2.21) 1.06 (0.57-1.95)
   ≥ 66.0 3 (1.4) 1 (0.3) 4.72 (0.60-95.7) 6.88 (0.75-153) 6.11 (0.67-134)
   P for trend    0.24 0.18 0.36
Whisky      
   Non-drinker 177 (82.7) 283 (86.5) 1.00 1.00 1.00
   0.1-65.9 30 (14.0) 38 (11.6) 1.26 (0.75-2.11) 1.62 (0.89-2.94) 1.60 (0.88-2.93)
   ≥ 66.0 7 (3.3) 6 (1.8) 1.87 (0.61-5.88) 2.72 (0.82-9.34) 2.25 (0.67-7.83)
   P for trend    0.17 0.03 0.06
  1. OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval.
  2. a Defined as period during which the subject's alcohol consumption was the highest.
  3. b Adjusted for sex, age, region of residence, pack-years of smoking, years of education, body mass index, alcohol flushing status, and presence of medication history for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes.
  4. c Adjusted for sex, age, region of residence, pack-years of smoking, years of education, body mass index, alcohol flushing status, presence of medication history for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes, dietary intake of caffeine, cholesterol, vitamin E, vitamin B6, iron, and dietary glycemic index.