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  1. Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a burdensome, chronic and autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. We aimed to report the incidence, prevalence, mortality, and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) of MS ...

    Authors: Nima Fattahi, Sahar Saeedi Moghaddam, Farnam Mohebi, Negar Rezaei, Masoud Masinaei, Sahar Mohammadi Fateh, Elham Soleymani Hassanlouei, Farhad Manoochehri, Eghbal Fattahi, Mohammad Ali Sahraian, Maziar Moradi-lakeh, Ali H. Mokdad, Mohsen Naghavi and Farshad Farzadfar

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:400

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Hypereosinophilia (HE) is caused by various conditions, including solid and hematologic tumors. Nonetheless, there exist no reports on cerebral infarctions caused by HE associated with lung cancer metastasis t...

    Authors: Maki Ozaki, Tomoo Mano, Nobuyuki Eura, Kazuhide Horimoto, Masato Takano, Chiho Ohbayashi and Kazuma Sugie

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:397

    Content type: Case report

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  3. Both fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) and late-onset neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease (NIID) show CGG/GGC trinucleotide repeat expansions. Differentiating these diseases are difficult...

    Authors: Megumi Toko, Tomohiko Ohshita, Takashi Kurashige, Hiroyuki Morino, Kodai Kume, Hiroshi Yamashita, Gen Sobue, Yasushi Iwasaki, Jun Sone, Hideshi Kawakami and Hirofumi Maruyama

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:396

    Content type: Case report

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  4. Transverse myelitis (TM) is a relatively uncommon condition, and vaccine-associated myelitis is even rarer. Concern regarding neurological complications following vaccination escalated following the report of ...

    Authors: Wee Yong Tan, Abdul Hanif Khan Yusof Khan, Mohd Naim Mohd Yaakob, Anna Misyail Abdul Rashid, Wei Chao Loh, Janudin Baharin, Azliza Ibrahim, Mohd Redzuan Ismail, Liyana Najwa Inche Mat, Wan Aliaa Wan Sulaiman, Hamidon Basri and Fan Kee Hoo

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:395

    Content type: Case report

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  5. Persistent postural-perceptual dizziness (PPPD) is the most common functional vestibular disorder. A multisensory mismatch altered by psychological influences is considered to be an important pathophysiologica...

    Authors: Sebastian Wurthmann, Dagny Holle, Mark Obermann, Miriam Roesner, Michael Nsaka, Armin Scheffler, Christoph Kleinschnitz and Steffen Naegel

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:394

    Content type: Research

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  6. Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder with defective DNA nucleotide excision repair and associated with a high frequency of skin cancer. Approximately 25% of patients develo...

    Authors: Tanya J. Lehky, Paul Sackstein, Deborah Tamura, Martha Quezado, Tianxia Wu, Sikandar G. Khan, Nicholas J. Patronas, Edythe Wiggs, Carmen C. Brewer, John J. DiGiovanna and Kenneth H. Kraemer

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:393

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE) is an infrequent and fatal infectious disease worldwide. Antemortem diagnosis in this condition is very difficult because clinical manifestations and neuroimaging are n...

    Authors: Shota Hirakata, Yusuke Sakiyama, Akiko Yoshimura, Mei Ikeda, Katsunori Takahata, Yuichi Tashiro, Michiyoshi Yoshimura, Hitoshi Arata, Hajime Yonezawa, Mari Kirishima, Michiyo Higashi, Miho Hatanaka, Takuro Kanekura, Kenji Yagita, Eiji Matsuura and Hiroshi Takashima

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:392

    Content type: Case report

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  8. With the increasing production and use of ethylene oxide (EO) worldwide, its explicit bio-toxicity has drawn more and more attention. At present, most studies focus on chronic EO exposure. Studies on acute EO ...

    Authors: Bin Lin, Chao Wang, Nan Lu, Le Zhang and Biao Jiang

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:391

    Content type: Case report

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  9. Persons with MS (PwMS) are frequently affected by fatigue and depression. Mindfulness-based interventions may reduce these symptoms in PwMS and consequently their application has been extended to various setti...

    Authors: Torsten Sauder, Sascha Hansen, Carina Bauswein, Roy Müller, Sonja Jaruszowic, Jana Keune, Thomas Schenk, Patrick Oschmann and Philipp M. Keune

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:390

    Content type: Research

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  10. To investigate the relationship between the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and prognosis after the first attack of optic neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD).

    Authors: Haojie Xie, Yi Zhao, Chunyang Pan, Jinwei Zhang, Yongyan Zhou, Yanfei Li, Ranran Duan, Yaobing Yao, Zhe Gong, Junfang Teng and Yanjie Jia

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:389

    Content type: Research

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  11. Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease involving the neuromuscular junction. Myasthenic crisis (MC), which is characterized by respiratory failure and the requirement of mechanical ventilation in pati...

    Authors: Che-Wei Hsu, Nai-Ching Chen, Wei-Chin Huang, Hui-Chen Lin, Wan-Chen Tsai, Chih-Cheng Huang, Ben-Chung Cheng and Nai-Wen Tsai

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:388

    Content type: Research

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  12. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) plays a role in neuronal survival and development, and has been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. We sought to examine the associations of the CSF HGF with Alzheimer’s di...

    Authors: Li-Jing Zhao, Zuo-Teng Wang, Ya-Hui Ma, Wei Zhang, Qiang Dong, Jin-Tai Yu and Lan Tan

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:387

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is clinical-neuroradiologically defined and potentially reversible, so there are limited data about histopathological findings. We aimed to describe the clin...

    Authors: Fatme Seval Ismail, Johannes van de Nes and Ilka Kleffner

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:386

    Content type: Research

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  14. Large artery atherosclerotic disease is an important cause of stroke, accounting for 15–46% of ischaemic strokes in population-based studies. Therefore, current guidelines from west recommend urgent carotid im...

    Authors: K. C. D. Mettananda, M. D. P. Eshani, L. M. Wettasinghe, S. Somaratne, Y. P. Nanayakkkara, W. Sathkorala, A. Upasena, C. Sirigampola, P. M. Y. Tilakaratna, A. Pathmeswaran and U. K. Ranawaka

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:385

    Content type: Research

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  15. The underlying pathogenesis of cerebral palsy (CP) remains poorly understood. The possibility of an early inflammatory response after acute insult is of increasing interest. Patterns of inflammatory and relate...

    Authors: Cory J. Goracke-Postle, Chantel C. Burkitt, Angela Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Michael Ehrhardt, George L. Wilcox, Patrick Graupman, Michael Partington and Frank J. Symons

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:384

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Fasting C-peptide (FCP) has been shown to play an important role in the pathophysiology of mood disorders including depression and schizophrenia, but it is unknown whether it also predicts post-stroke depressi...

    Authors: Yanyan Wang, Wenzhe Sun, Jinfeng Miao, Xiuli Qiu, Yan Lan, Chensheng Pan, Guo Li, Xin Zhao, Zhou Zhu and Suiqiang Zhu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:383

    Content type: Research

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  17. The genetics of cerebellar ataxia is complex. Hundreds of causative genes have been identified, but only a few cause more than single cases. The spectrum of ataxia-causing genes differs considerably between po...

    Authors: Joonas Lipponen, Seppo Helisalmi, Joose Raivo, Ari Siitonen, Hiroshi Doi, Harri Rusanen, Maria Lehtilahti, Mervi Ryytty, Markku Laakso, Fumiaki Tanaka, Kari Majamaa and Laura Kytövuori

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:382

    Content type: Research

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  18. Evidence indicates that inflammatory processes are involved in radicular pain as well as in resorption of herniated disc tissue. Furthermore there are indications that the presence of vertebral end plate patho...

    Authors: Niek Djuric, Geraldine Lafeber, Sjoerd G. van Duinen, Sandra Bernards, Wilco C. Peul and Carmen L. A. Vleggeert-Lankamp

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:379

    Content type: Study protocol

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  19. The implementation of condition-specific falls prevention interventions is proving challenging due to lack of critical mass and resources. Given the similarities in falls risk factors across stroke, Parkinson’...

    Authors: Nicola O’Malley, Amanda M. Clifford, Mairéad Conneely, Bláthín Casey and Susan Coote

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:378

    Content type: Research

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  20. The effect of atrial fibrillation (AF) on outcomes of endovascular treatment (EVT) for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is controversial. This study aimed to investigate the association of AF with outcomes after EV...

    Authors: Xu Tong, Shijing Li, Wei Liu, Zeguang Ren, Raynald Liu, Baixue Jia, Xuelei Zhang, Xiaochuan Huo, Gang Luo, Gaoting Ma, Anxin Wang, Yilong Wang, Yongjun Wang, Zhongrong Miao and Dapeng Mo

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:377

    Content type: Research

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  21. To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Brain Injury Screening Tool (BIST) symptom scale in a sample of people with a mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI) through Rasch analysis, and to obtain an interval...

    Authors: Nusratnaaz Shaikh, Alice Theadom, Richard Siegert, Natalie Hardaker, Doug King and Patria Hume

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:376

    Content type: Research

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  22. The American Heart Association/ American Stroke Association and the Chinese Stroke Association guidelines are recommending intravenous alteplase intervention before endovascular thrombectomy if patients are el...

    Authors: Ruodong Han, Bowen Li, Yajie Yue, Guozhu Wu and Xiuxia Yan

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:375

    Content type: Research

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  23. Paraneoplastic neurologic syndromes (PNS) are rare, however, are important to recognize as oftentimes they precede the detection of an occult malignancy. Our case highlights a rare circumstance of paraneoplast...

    Authors: Meshari Alsaeed, Chloe A. R. Lim, Alyson Plecash and Tychicus Chen

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:374

    Content type: Case report

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  24. The prognostic value of serum bilirubin in stroke is controversial, since bilirubin has both neuroprotective and neurotoxic properties. We aimed to investigate the association between serum bilirubin, includin...

    Authors: Quping Ouyang, Anxin Wang, Xue Tian, Yingting Zuo, Zhimeng Liu, Qin Xu, Xia Meng, Pan Chen, Hao Li and Yongjun Wang

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:373

    Content type: Research

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  25. Dystrophinopathy, a common neuromuscular disorder, includes Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD). Many researches are currently ongoing to develop curative approaches, which re...

    Authors: Liang Wang, Min Xu, Dawei Liu, Yingyin Liang, Pinning Feng, Huan Li, Yuling Zhu, Ruojie He, Jinfu Lin, Huili Zhang, Ziyu Liao and Cheng Zhang

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:372

    Content type: Research

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  26. Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) is a rare autoimmune disorder of neuromuscular transmission. The objective was to examine the efficacy and safety of 3,4-diaminopyridine (3,4-DAP) in patients with LEMS.

    Authors: Na Zhang, Daojun Hong, Taohui Ouyang, Wei Meng, Jingwei Huang, Meihua Li and Tao Hong

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:371

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Ischemic stroke is a disease with high rate of death and disability worldwide. CircRNAs, as a novel type of non-coding RNAs, lacking 5’ caps and 3’ poly-A tails, has been associated with ischemic stroke. This ...

    Authors: Duncan Wei, Jian Chen, Xiaopu Chen, Shaoyan Wu, Zhaolin Chen, Yinting Huang, Zibin Shen and Wenzhen He

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:370

    Content type: Research

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  28. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been reported to treat muscle spasticity in post-stroke patients. The purpose of this study was to explore whether combined low-frequency rTMS (LF-rTMS) ...

    Authors: Dawei Li, Aixia Cheng, Zhiyou Zhang, Yuqian Sun and Yingchun Liu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:369

    Content type: Research

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  29. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) rarely reveals structural changes in patients with suspected anti-Tr/DNER encephalitis and thus provides very limited information. Here, we combined structural MRI, funct...

    Authors: Sisi Shen, Wenyu Liu, Ming Zhou, Ruiyi Yang, Jinmei Li and Dong Zhou

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:368

    Content type: Case report

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  30. Many antiseizure medications (ASMs) control seizures by blocking voltage-dependent sodium channels. Polymorphisms of sodium channel genes may affect the response to ASMs due to altering the effect of ASMs on b...

    Authors: Chih-Hsiang Lin, Chen-Jui Ho, Yan-Ting Lu and Meng-Han Tsai

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:367

    Content type: Research

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  31. Spinal AVF (SAVF), a potentially treatable cause of myelopathy, remains a challenging diagnosis. Its rarity and non-specific imaging findings often result in misdiagnosis despite a high index of clinical suspi...

    Authors: D. Krishnan, S. Viswanathan, N. Rose, H. S. N. Benjamin, A. M. Ong and F. L. Hiew

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:366

    Content type: Case report

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  32. Limited data are available for evaluating the relationship between the prognosis and body temperature (BT) in patients treated with mechanical thrombectomy (MT), especially in those with successful recanalizat...

    Authors: Man Chen, Jinghuan Fang, Xintong Wu, Qin Liu, Ling Feng and Li He

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:365

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Few studies have investigated the influence of white matter lesions (WMLs) on the prognosis of acute cardioembolic stroke (CES). We aimed to explore the role of WMLs in predicting 3-month prognosis of CES with...

    Authors: Yikun Guo, Zhuoyou Chen, Qian Wang, Min Zhang, Guanzhong Dong, Wenying Zou, Tian Yao and Yun Xu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:364

    Content type: Research article

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  34. When MRI fails to detect a potentially epileptogenic lesion, the chance of a favorable outcome after epilepsy surgery becomes significantly lower (from 60 to 90% to 20–65%). Hybrid FDG-PET/MRI may provide addi...

    Authors: Márton Tóth, Péter Barsi, Zoltán Tóth, Katalin Borbély, János Lückl, Miklós Emri, Imre Repa, József Janszky, Tamás Dóczi, Zsolt Horváth, Péter Halász, Vera Juhos, Csilla Gyimesi, Beáta Bóné, Diána Kuperczkó, Réka Horváth…

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:363

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Occlusion of the internal carotid artery (ICA), whether isolated or in the setting of a tandem lesion (TL) have a poor response to treatment with intravenous thrombolysis. Previous studies ​​have demonstrated ...

    Authors: Luigi Cirillo, Daniele Giuseppe Romano, Gianfranco Vornetti, Giulia Frauenfelder, Chiara Tamburrano, Francesco Taglialatela, Salvatore Isceri, Renato Saponiero, Rosa Napoletano, Mauro Gentile, Michele Romoli, Ciro Princiotta, Luigi Simonetti and Andrea Zini

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:362

    Content type: Research article

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  36. To assess heart rate variability (HRV) among patients with arteriosclerotic cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) by comparing with control subjects, and to determine whether HRV parameters were related to stru...

    Authors: Miaoyi Zhang, Huan Yu, Weijun Tang, Ding Ding, Jie Tang, Na Liu, Yang Xue, Xue Ren, Langfeng Shi and Jianhui Fu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:361

    Content type: Research

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  37. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) can increase cardiovascular risk. However, the association between LDL-C change and functional outcomes in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients who underwent reperfu...

    Authors: Ting Cui, Changyi Wang, Qiange Zhu, Anmo Wang, Xuening Zhang, Shucheng Li, Yuan Yang, Wenzuo Shang, Rong Peng and Bo Wu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:360

    Content type: Research

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  38. Reports have proven that shorter door-to-needle time (DTN time) indicates better outcomes in AIS patients received intravenous thrombolysis. Efforts have been made by hospitals and centers to minimize DTN time...

    Authors: Zhao-Han Xu, Qi-Wen Deng, Qian Zhai, Qing Zhang, Zhen-Jie Wang, Wen-Xia Chen, Meng-Meng Gu, Teng Jiang, Jun-Shan Zhou and Ying-Dong Zhang

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:359

    Content type: Research

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  39. Pathogenic variants in KDM5C are a cause of X-linked intellectual disability in males. Other features in males include short stature, dysmorphic features, seizures and spasticity. In some instances, female relati...

    Authors: Natalie C. Lippa, Subit Barua, Vimla Aggarwal, Elaine Pereira and Jennifer M. Bain

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:358

    Content type: Case report

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  40. The purpose of the present study was to translate and cross-culturally adapt the King’s Parkinson’s Disease Pain Scale (KPPS) into Bulgarian and to investigate its psychometric properties in order to provide a...

    Authors: Galina Stoyanova-Piroth, Ivan Milanov and Katerina Stambolieva

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:357

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Continuous spike and wave of sleep with encephalopathy (CSWS) is a rare and severe developmental electroclinical epileptic encephalopathy characterized by seizures, abundant sleep activated interictal epilepti...

    Authors: S. M. Stoyell, B. S. Baxter, J. McLaren, H. Kwon, D. M. Chinappen, L. Ostrowski, L. Zhu, J. A. Grieco, M. A. Kramer, A. K. Morgan, B. C. Emerton, D. S. Manoach and C. J. Chu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:355

    Content type: Case report

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  42. Authors: Tina Duong, Jessica Braid, Hannah Staunton, Aurelie Barriere, Fani Petridis, Johannes Reithinger, Rosangel Cruz, Jill Jarecki, Mencia De Lemus, Nicole Gusset, Ria Broekgaarden, Sharan Randhawa, Jessica Flynn, Rob Arbuckle, Sonia Reif, Lida Yang…

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:354

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in BMC Neurology 2021 21:143

  43. Rosai–Dorfman disease (RDD) is a rare, benign, idiopathic non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Cases of RDD in the CNS are extremely rare but lethal. RDD is thought to represent a reactive process. Recent studie...

    Authors: Huawei Jin, Zhenhua Yu, Tian Tian, Guoping Shen, Weian Chen, Miao Fan, Qun He, Fei Xu and Dawei Liu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:352

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  44. Weight gain (WG) is a frequently reported side effect of subthalamic deep brain stimulation; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The active contact locations influence the clinical outcomes of s...

    Authors: Katsuki Eguchi, Shinichi Shirai, Masaaki Matsushima, Takahiro Kano, Kazuyoshi Yamazaki, Shuji Hamauchi, Toru Sasamori, Toshitaka Seki, Kenji Hirata, Mayumi Kitagawa, Mika Otsuki, Tohru Shiga, Kiyohiro Houkin, Hidenao Sasaki and Ichiro Yabe

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:351

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  45. Asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis (aCAS) impairs haemodynamic and cognitive functions; however, the relationship between these changes and brain network connectivity remains largely unknown. This study aime...

    Authors: Shihao He, Ran Duan, Ziqi Liu, Cai Zhang, Tian Li, Yanchang Wei, Ning Ma and Rong Wang

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:350

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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