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  1. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been reported to treat muscle spasticity in post-stroke patients. The purpose of this study was to explore whether combined low-frequency rTMS (LF-rTMS) ...

    Authors: Dawei Li, Aixia Cheng, Zhiyou Zhang, Yuqian Sun and Yingchun Liu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:369

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  2. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) rarely reveals structural changes in patients with suspected anti-Tr/DNER encephalitis and thus provides very limited information. Here, we combined structural MRI, funct...

    Authors: Sisi Shen, Wenyu Liu, Ming Zhou, Ruiyi Yang, Jinmei Li and Dong Zhou

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:368

    Content type: Case report

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  3. Many antiseizure medications (ASMs) control seizures by blocking voltage-dependent sodium channels. Polymorphisms of sodium channel genes may affect the response to ASMs due to altering the effect of ASMs on b...

    Authors: Chih-Hsiang Lin, Chen-Jui Ho, Yan-Ting Lu and Meng-Han Tsai

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:367

    Content type: Research

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  4. Spinal AVF (SAVF), a potentially treatable cause of myelopathy, remains a challenging diagnosis. Its rarity and non-specific imaging findings often result in misdiagnosis despite a high index of clinical suspi...

    Authors: D. Krishnan, S. Viswanathan, N. Rose, H. S. N. Benjamin, A. M. Ong and F. L. Hiew

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:366

    Content type: Case report

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  5. Limited data are available for evaluating the relationship between the prognosis and body temperature (BT) in patients treated with mechanical thrombectomy (MT), especially in those with successful recanalizat...

    Authors: Man Chen, Jinghuan Fang, Xintong Wu, Qin Liu, Ling Feng and Li He

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:365

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Few studies have investigated the influence of white matter lesions (WMLs) on the prognosis of acute cardioembolic stroke (CES). We aimed to explore the role of WMLs in predicting 3-month prognosis of CES with...

    Authors: Yikun Guo, Zhuoyou Chen, Qian Wang, Min Zhang, Guanzhong Dong, Wenying Zou, Tian Yao and Yun Xu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:364

    Content type: Research article

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  7. When MRI fails to detect a potentially epileptogenic lesion, the chance of a favorable outcome after epilepsy surgery becomes significantly lower (from 60 to 90% to 20–65%). Hybrid FDG-PET/MRI may provide addi...

    Authors: Márton Tóth, Péter Barsi, Zoltán Tóth, Katalin Borbély, János Lückl, Miklós Emri, Imre Repa, József Janszky, Tamás Dóczi, Zsolt Horváth, Péter Halász, Vera Juhos, Csilla Gyimesi, Beáta Bóné, Diána Kuperczkó, Réka Horváth…

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:363

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Occlusion of the internal carotid artery (ICA), whether isolated or in the setting of a tandem lesion (TL) have a poor response to treatment with intravenous thrombolysis. Previous studies ​​have demonstrated ...

    Authors: Luigi Cirillo, Daniele Giuseppe Romano, Gianfranco Vornetti, Giulia Frauenfelder, Chiara Tamburrano, Francesco Taglialatela, Salvatore Isceri, Renato Saponiero, Rosa Napoletano, Mauro Gentile, Michele Romoli, Ciro Princiotta, Luigi Simonetti and Andrea Zini

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:362

    Content type: Research article

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  9. To assess heart rate variability (HRV) among patients with arteriosclerotic cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) by comparing with control subjects, and to determine whether HRV parameters were related to stru...

    Authors: Miaoyi Zhang, Huan Yu, Weijun Tang, Ding Ding, Jie Tang, Na Liu, Yang Xue, Xue Ren, Langfeng Shi and Jianhui Fu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:361

    Content type: Research

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  10. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) can increase cardiovascular risk. However, the association between LDL-C change and functional outcomes in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients who underwent reperfu...

    Authors: Ting Cui, Changyi Wang, Qiange Zhu, Anmo Wang, Xuening Zhang, Shucheng Li, Yuan Yang, Wenzuo Shang, Rong Peng and Bo Wu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:360

    Content type: Research

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  11. Reports have proven that shorter door-to-needle time (DTN time) indicates better outcomes in AIS patients received intravenous thrombolysis. Efforts have been made by hospitals and centers to minimize DTN time...

    Authors: Zhao-Han Xu, Qi-Wen Deng, Qian Zhai, Qing Zhang, Zhen-Jie Wang, Wen-Xia Chen, Meng-Meng Gu, Teng Jiang, Jun-Shan Zhou and Ying-Dong Zhang

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:359

    Content type: Research

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  12. Pathogenic variants in KDM5C are a cause of X-linked intellectual disability in males. Other features in males include short stature, dysmorphic features, seizures and spasticity. In some instances, female relati...

    Authors: Natalie C. Lippa, Subit Barua, Vimla Aggarwal, Elaine Pereira and Jennifer M. Bain

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:358

    Content type: Case report

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  13. The purpose of the present study was to translate and cross-culturally adapt the King’s Parkinson’s Disease Pain Scale (KPPS) into Bulgarian and to investigate its psychometric properties in order to provide a...

    Authors: Galina Stoyanova-Piroth, Ivan Milanov and Katerina Stambolieva

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:357

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Continuous spike and wave of sleep with encephalopathy (CSWS) is a rare and severe developmental electroclinical epileptic encephalopathy characterized by seizures, abundant sleep activated interictal epilepti...

    Authors: S. M. Stoyell, B. S. Baxter, J. McLaren, H. Kwon, D. M. Chinappen, L. Ostrowski, L. Zhu, J. A. Grieco, M. A. Kramer, A. K. Morgan, B. C. Emerton, D. S. Manoach and C. J. Chu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:355

    Content type: Case report

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  15. Authors: Tina Duong, Jessica Braid, Hannah Staunton, Aurelie Barriere, Fani Petridis, Johannes Reithinger, Rosangel Cruz, Jill Jarecki, Mencia De Lemus, Nicole Gusset, Ria Broekgaarden, Sharan Randhawa, Jessica Flynn, Rob Arbuckle, Sonia Reif, Lida Yang…

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:354

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in BMC Neurology 2021 21:143

  16. The aim of this study was to investigate whether default mode network (DMN) connectivity and brain white matter integrity at baseline were associated with severe cognitive impairments at baseline and poor cogn...

    Authors: Shigenori Kanno, Kun-ichi Ogawa, Hiroaki Kikuchi, Masako Toyoshima, Nobuhito Abe, Kazushi Sato, Koichi Miyazawa, Ryuji Oshima, Satoru Ohtomo, Hiroaki Arai, Satoshi Shibuya and Kyoko Suzuki

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:353

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  17. Rosai–Dorfman disease (RDD) is a rare, benign, idiopathic non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Cases of RDD in the CNS are extremely rare but lethal. RDD is thought to represent a reactive process. Recent studie...

    Authors: Huawei Jin, Zhenhua Yu, Tian Tian, Guoping Shen, Weian Chen, Miao Fan, Qun He, Fei Xu and Dawei Liu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:352

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  18. Weight gain (WG) is a frequently reported side effect of subthalamic deep brain stimulation; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The active contact locations influence the clinical outcomes of s...

    Authors: Katsuki Eguchi, Shinichi Shirai, Masaaki Matsushima, Takahiro Kano, Kazuyoshi Yamazaki, Shuji Hamauchi, Toru Sasamori, Toshitaka Seki, Kenji Hirata, Mayumi Kitagawa, Mika Otsuki, Tohru Shiga, Kiyohiro Houkin, Hidenao Sasaki and Ichiro Yabe

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:351

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  19. Asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis (aCAS) impairs haemodynamic and cognitive functions; however, the relationship between these changes and brain network connectivity remains largely unknown. This study aime...

    Authors: Shihao He, Ran Duan, Ziqi Liu, Cai Zhang, Tian Li, Yanchang Wei, Ning Ma and Rong Wang

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:350

    Content type: Research

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  20. We tried to evaluate the prevalence of premature discontinuation of antiplatelets and its affecting factors after ischemic stroke using large-sized representative national claims data.

    Authors: Seung Jae Kim, Oh Deog Kwon, Ho Chun Choi, Eung-Joon Lee, BeLong Cho and Dae Hyun Yoon

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:349

    Content type: Research

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  21. Autoimmune encephalitis (AE) is a rare inflammatory disorder characterized by important psychiatric and neurologic symptoms. The literature documents high rates of neuropsychological dysfunction in N-methyl D-...

    Authors: Laura Mori, William Campanella, Lucilla Vestito, Lucio Marinelli, Luana Benedetti, Leonardo Cocito and Carlo Trompetto

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:347

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  22. Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-pa) is the first-line drug for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke, and can lead to some complications.There were rare reports of death due to acute pulmonary ed...

    Authors: Xue-Bing Chen, Dong Qu, Qing Zhang, Xia Yue and Dong-Fang Qiao

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:346

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  23. The nature of COVID-19 pandemic measures has altered the clinical management of migraine, and has also created barriers to evaluate the impact of such measures of migraine patients. Using the Migraine Buddy sm...

    Authors: Yuji Kato, Weijie Poh, Zsolt Horvath, François Cadiou, Tomokazu Shimazu and Yuichi Maruki

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:345

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  24. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a disease which is difficult to diagnose and moreover difficult to treat. We developed a strategy for long-term telemonitoring of intracranial pressure (ICP), by i...

    Authors: Victor F. Velazquez Sanchez, Giath Al Dayri and Christoph A. Tschan

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:343

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Recent resting-state fMRI studies demonstrated functional dysconnectivity within the central pain matrix in migraineurs. This study aimed to investigate the spatial distribution and amplitude of low-frequency ...

    Authors: Ye Eun Kim, Min Kyung Kim, Sang-il Suh and Ji Hyun Kim

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:342

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  26. We aimed to explore the association of serum level of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) and its related inflammatory biomarkers (hypoxia induc...

    Authors: Yanan Wang, Hexiao Huang, Weihong He, Shihong Zhang, Ming Liu and Simiao Wu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:341

    Content type: Research

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  27. The relationship between the HLA-B*1502 gene and maculopapular exanthema (MPE) induced by antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we investigated the association between AED-indu...

    Authors: Nilupaer Shafeng, Deng-feng Han, Yun-fang Ma, Rena Abudusalamu and Binuer Ayitimuhan

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:340

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  28. Resection of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVM) is technically demanding because of size, eloquent location or diffuse nidus. Controlled arterial hypotension (CAH) could facilitate haemostasis. We perf...

    Authors: Katharina Riedel, Marcus Thudium, Azize Boström, Johannes Schramm and Martin Soehle

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:339

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  29. Epileptic seizures can be difficult to distinguish from other etiologies that cause cerebral hypoxia, especially cardiac diseases. Long QT syndrome (LQTS), especially LQTS type 2 (LQT2), frequently masquerades...

    Authors: Huicong Kang, Lili Lan, Yuchao Jia, Cun Li, Yongkang Fang, Suiqiang Zhu and Heidi Kirsch

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:338

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  30. The aim of the current study was to examine multiple gait parameters obtained by wearable inertial sensors and their sensitivity to clinical status in early multiple sclerosis (MS). Further, a potential correl...

    Authors: Roy Müller, Daniel Hamacher, Sascha Hansen, Patrick Oschmann and Philipp M. Keune

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:337

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Craniopharyngioma (CP) is a slow-growing, benign tumor of the central nervous system located within the sellar and suprasellar regions. The tumor may extend from the suprasellar region to other areas. CPs are ...

    Authors: Xintao Cai, Zhixiang Sun, Yu Li, Dongqi Shao, Xialin Zheng, Yu Wang and Zhiquan Jiang

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:336

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  32. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a common symptom in the patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). The characteristics of cognitive impairment in PD are executive function (including working memory) and visuo-...

    Authors: Shoji Kawashima, Yoko Shimizu, Yoshino Ueki and Noriyuki Matsukawa

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:335

    Content type: Research

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  33. Neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease (NIID) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by dementia, tremor, episodic encephalopathy and autonomic nervous dysfunction. To date, vestibular migraine (VM)-li...

    Authors: Danhua Zhao, Sha Zhu, Qinlan Xu, Jianwen Deng, Zhaoxia Wang and Xianzeng Liu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:334

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  34. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease and is one of the most costly medical conditions that imposed families with catastrophic health expenditures. There is an increasing trend in using alter...

    Authors: Shadi Ziaie, Niloofar Namazi, Golnaz Afzal, Saghar Barati, Rezvaneh Mohebbi, Mahshad Mir, Hadi Esmaily and Gholamhossein Mehralian

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:333

    Content type: Research

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  35. The consequences of strict COVID-19 mobility restrictions on motor/non-motor features in Parkinson’s disease (PD) have not been systematically studied but worse mobility and quality of life have been reported....

    Authors: Raquel Luis-Martínez, Roberto Di Marco, Luca Weis, Valeria Cianci, Francesca Pistonesi, Alfonc Baba, Miryam Carecchio, Roberta Biundo, Chiara Tedesco, Stefano Masiero and Angelo Antonini

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:332

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Gait impairments are among the most common and impactful symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Recent technological advances aim to quantify these impairments using low-cost wearable systems for use in either ...

    Authors: Sara Alberto, Sílvia Cabral, João Proença, Filipa Pona-Ferreira, Mariana Leitão, Raquel Bouça-Machado, Linda Azevedo Kauppila, António P. Veloso, Rui M. Costa, Joaquim J. Ferreira and Ricardo Matias

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:331

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  37. Spinal cord injury (SCI) is associated with autonomic imbalance and significant secondary conditions, including cardiac and brain dysfunction that adversely impact health and wellbeing. This study will investi...

    Authors: Ashley Craig, Ilaria Pozzato, Mohit Arora, James Middleton, Dianah Rodrigues, Candice McBain, Yvonne Tran, Glen M. Davis, Bamini Gopinath, Annette Kifley, Andrei Krassioukov, Jeffrey Braithwaite, Rebecca Mitchell, Sylvia M. Gustin, Jacob Schoffl and Ian D. Cameron

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:329

    Content type: Study protocol

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  38. Spastic Paraplegia type 7 (SPG7) is one of the most common autosomal recessive Hereditary Spastic Paraplegias (HSP); Spastic Paraplegias (SPGs) can present as hereditary ataxias. However, ataxia is frequently ...

    Authors: Gabriele Bellini, Eleonora Del Prete, Elisa Unti, Daniela Frosini, Gabriele Siciliano and Roberto Ceravolo

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:328

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  39. Cognitive impairment is a common non-motor symptom in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is also prevalent in nondemented PD patients, even in newly diagnosed PD patients. ...

    Authors: Yanbing Hou, Qianqian Wei, Ruwei Ou, Lingyu Zhang, Xiaoqin Yuan, Qiyong Gong and Huifang Shang

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:327

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  40. Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is a highly prevalent neurodegenerative disease whose incidence is increasing with an aging population. One of the most serious manifestations of PD is gait instability, leading to fal...

    Authors: Craig Horbinski, Katelyn B. Zumpf, Kathleen McCortney and Dean Eoannou

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:326

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  41. Despite trends towards the increased age of patients living with multiple sclerosis (MS), little is known about the response of older adults with MS to disease-modifying therapies (DMTs). Thus, a post-hoc analysi...

    Authors: Francesco Patti, Javier Nicolas Penaherrera, Lorissa Zieger and Eva-Maria Wicklein

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:324

    Content type: Research

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  42. Primary intracranial neuroendocrine tumors are exceedingly rare, with few cases in the literature. We present a case of a primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the pineal gland, which is the second that has ever...

    Authors: Angela Cheng, Jane Barron, Oliver Holmes, Peter Bartlett, Gregory Jenkins and Melanie Seal

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:323

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  43. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) development has reduced the severity of neurological complications of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but they remain prevalent and need prompt recognition. Acute inflammat...

    Authors: Mariana Lopes, Patrícia Marques, Bruno Silva, Gonçalo Cruz, José Eduardo Serra, Eugenia Ferreira, Helena Alves and José Saraiva da Cunha

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:321

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  44. The cerebellum receives afferent signals from spinocerebellar pathways regulating lower limb movements. However, the longitudinal changes in the spinocerebellar pathway in the early stage of unilateral suprate...

    Authors: Gang Liu, Yaomin Guo, Chao Dang, Kangqiang Peng, Shuangquan Tan, Chuanmiao Xie, Shihui Xing and Jinsheng Zeng

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:320

    Content type: Research article

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