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Table 3 Rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of mortality in 1131 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cases according to smoking status, General Practice Research Database, 1990-2008

From: Association of smoking with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis risk and survival in men and women: a prospective study

Smoking status N. deaths Person-years RR (95% CI) *
Entire sample
Never 266 722.7 1.00 (ref.)
Ever 394 1103.3 1.06 (0.90-1.23)
   Former 191 496.4 1.11 (0.92-1.34)
   Current 203 606.9 1.01 (0.84-1.21)
   Non-heavy smokers 352 1029.7 1.02 (0.87-1.20)
   Heavy smokers 42 73.6 1.45 (1.03-2.03)
Missing 142 530.8 0.92 (0.74-1.14)
Men
Never 141 400.9 1.00 (ref.)
Ever 213 733.4 0.90 (0.72-1.11)
   Former 106 347.4 0.91 (0.71-1.17)
   Current 107 386.0 0.88 (0.69-1.14)
   Non-heavy smokers 195 695.8 0.88 (0.71-1.10)
   Heavy smokers 18 37.6 1.08 (0.65-1.79)
Missing 76 282.8 0.91 (0.68-1.22)
Women
Never 125 321.9 1.00 (ref.)
Ever 181 369.9 1.31 (1.04-1.65)
   Former 85 149.0 1.46 (1.11-1.94)
   Current 96 220.9 1.20 (0.92-1.57)
   Non-heavy smokers 157 333.9 1.26 (0.99-1.59)
   Heavy smokers 24 36.0 1.94 (1.24-3.06)
Missing 66 248.0 0.92 (0.67-1.26)
  1. * Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for age, gender, diagnosis (ALS vs. ALS variant), and year of diagnosis.