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Table 4 Qualitative assessment of echogenicity of brainstem raphe, red nucleus, thalamus, caudate and lenticular nuclei in NCD and IPD group

From: Transcranial sonography for diagnosis of Parkinson's disease

Structure NCD group (n = 201) IPD group (n = 183)
Brainstem raphe grade 1:n = 23
grade 2:n = 176
  grade 1:n = 30
grade 2:n = 130
 
  right left right left
Red nucleus grade 1:n = 44
grade 2:n = 150
grade 1:n = 44
grade 2:n = 154
grade 1:n = 47
grade 2:n = 113
grade 1:n = 49
grade 2:n = 109
Thalamus grade 1:n = 198
grade 2,3:n = 0
grade 1:n = 198
grade 2,3:n = 0
grade 1:n = 157
grade 2,3:n = 0
grade 1:n = 156
grade 2:n = 1
grade 3:n = 0
Lenticular nucleus grade 1:n = 194
grade 2:n = 3
grade 1:n = 194
grade 2:n = 4
grade 1:n = 155
grade 2:n = 13
grade 3:n = 1
grade 1:n = 150
grade 2:n = 19
grade 3:n = 3
Caudate nucleus grade 1:n = 197
grade 2,3:n = 1
grade 1:n = 196
grade 2:n = 2
grade 3:n = 0
grade 1:n = 162
grade 2:n = 3
grade 3:n = 2
grade 1:n = 166
grade 2:n = 4
grade 3:n = 0
  1. Mann-Whitney-U-Test showed no significance between NCD and IPD group for echogenicity of all structures. Structure echogenicity was classified: Raphe: markedly echogenic (2); interrupted or not visible (1). Red nucleus: weakly echogenic (1), markedly echogenic (2), hyperechogenic (3). Thalamus, caudate and lenticular nucleus: iso- or hypoechogenic (1), hyperechogenic (2), markedly hyperechogenic (3).